African Peoples Journal
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Haiti - Haitians
(1805) 20,000 people were used , over 15 years, to build the Citadelle Laferrière mountaintop fortress in Nord, Haiti
January 31, 2020
Haiti (10 million) - Basic Facts
Summary of basic information about Haiti, including details about its capital, official language, official name, form of government, head of state, geographical area,  population, economy, national observances, and currency used.
  • Just east of the island of Cuba
  • Located on the western 3/8 of the island of Hispaniola
  • Shares a 224-mile border with the Dominican Republic
Official Name
République d'Haïti (French)
Repiblik D Ayiti (Haitian Creole)
( Republic of Haiti )
Colonized by
Spanish (1492)
French (1663)
Official Language
French, Haitian Creole
Special Distinction
  • One of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere
  • One of the most densely populated countries in the Western Hemisphere
  • One of the least developed countries in the Western Hemisphere
Form of Government
Semi-Presidential Republic
Multiparty System
Bicameral Legislature

March 29, 1987

Head of State
(elected directly by popular elections)

Head of Government
Prime Minister
(appointed by the President)

National Assembly of Haiti
President Jovenel Moise
42nd President of Haiti
February 2017 - Present
11 million (2017)
85% African Descent
15% Mulatto, Europeans, Asians, Arabs
Land Area
10K square miles of land
73 square miles of water
1,100 miles of coastline
Mostly covered by mountains
Predominantly tropical climate

Economic Freedom Score:  52.7
Economic Freedom Rank: 143

  • Subsistence farming
  • Dominant cash crops coffee, mangoes, and cocoa
  • Sugarcane and timber exports are on decline
  • Fishing industry at 5,000 tons annually
  • Mining and minerals: minerals, such as Bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, and marble @ $13 million annually
  • Manufacturing: accounts for approximately 20% of Haiti's GDP and less than 10% of the workforce, producing products such as beverages, butter, cement, detergent, edible oils, flour, refined sugar, soap, and textiles
  • 20% Own Total Wealth in Country
  • 59.0% Live in Poverty (below $2.00/day)
  • 24.7% Live in Extreme Poverty (below $1.25/day)
  • 100,000+ Children are Malnourished
Haitian Gourde