Timeline of Humanity
in focus: ( Arab Republic of ) Egypt
Timeline: Arab Republic of Egypt | BeingBlackToday.com
Anglo-Egyptian War Allows British to Gain Influence Over Egypt
1878 Grievance Over Unfair Military Compensation Leads to War
Because his grievance against a difference in pay between European and Egyptian military, as well as other issues, Egyptian army officer, Ahmed ‘Urabi mutinied and initiated a coup against Tewfik Pasha, the Khedive (representative colonial ruler) of Egypt and Sudan.

1882 January.  British and French Government Affirm Support of Khedive Pasha
In January 1882 the British and French governments sent a "Joint Note" to the Egyptian government, declaring their recognition of the Khedive's authority. 

1882 May.  British and French Send Warships
 On May 20, 1882, British and French warships arrived off the coast of Alexandria

1882 June. 50 Europeans Killed in Anti-Christian Riot
On 11 June 1882, an anti-Christian riot occurred in Alexandria that killed 50 Europeans. Colonel ‘Urabi ordered his forces to put down the riot, but Europeans fled the city and ‘Urabi's army began fortifying the town. 

The French who had accompanied the British, recalled their fleet.

1882 July.  Egyptian and Sudanese Forces War Against the British
After a British ultimatum was rejected, in July 1882, Egyptian and Sudanese forces, under Ahmed ‘Urabi, engaged in war with the United Kingdom.

For 10-1/2 hours, British warship bombarded Alexandria, and then continued their engagement for two additional days, before occupying the territory with marines.

The British did not lose a single ship, but much of the city was destroyed by fires caused by explosive shells and by ‘Urabists seeking to ruin the city that the British were taking over.

1882 August. The British Send 40,000 Additional Troops and Engineers
In August, a British army of over 40,000, commanded by Garnet Wolseley, invaded the Suez Canal Zone. He was authorised to destroy ‘Urabi's forces and clear the country of all other rebels.The engineer troops had left England for Egypt in July and August 1882. The engineers included pontoon, railway and telegraph troops.

Egyptian President Sadat Appoints General Mubarak as Vice President of Egypt
Along with swearing in a Cabinet, Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat appointed Lieutenant General Husni Mubarak, the air force commander, as Vice President.  

The 47 year old general directed the Egyptian Air Force during the war of October, 1973.

General Husni Mubarak

General Mubarak replaced Hussein Shafei, who as a colonel in 1952 was one of the Free Officers under Gamal Abdel Nasser, who overthrew King Farouk. Except for Mr. Sadat, no member of the group remains active in the Government.

Egyptian President Anwar Sadat
Egyptian President Jails 1000s of Opponents Activists, Politicians, Journalists
Following a failed military coup in June 1981, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat ordered a major crackdown, culminating in the arrest of 1,600 opponents, mostly Muslim fundamentalists and extremists, for “sectarian sedition” --- inciting rebellion against his regime.  Some Coptic Christian priests also were arrested and the community's Pope, Shenuda III, was stripped of power and advised to stay at his remote desert monastery.  

In the days following, after being rudely challenged by the press on his position, an ABC news reporter was expelled and the video footage of a British journalist critical of the Sadat regime was confiscated at the Cairo airpot.

Egypt vs Soviet Union Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (LEFT) and Leonid Brezhnev, Leader of the Soviet Union (RIGHT)
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat Expels Soviets from Egypt
Blaming Soviet diplomats for instigating unrest, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat expelled hundreds of representatives of the Soviet Union from Egypt.

Along with expelling the Soviet Ambassador Vladimir Polyakov, six Soviet diplomats, two Soviet journalists,  and a Hungarian diplomat were expelled and requested to be out of the country within 48 hours. 

In addition, the contracts of more than 1,000 Soviet technical advisers who helped set up and run Egypt's heavy industry were asked to leave the country within a week..

Sadat took these actions after Egyptian military intelligence uncovered three plots involving Soviet and Hungarian diplomats aimed at toppling the regime.  Reports also indicated that the Soviets had played an "outstanding role instigating and escalating Muslim-Christian strife" in Egypt.

President Anwar Sadat of Egypt at military parade immediately prior to his assassination
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat Assassinated
Anwar Sadat, the President of Egypt, was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Operation Badr, during which the Egyptian Army had crossed the Suez Canal and taken back a small part of the Sinai Peninsula from Israel at the beginning of the Yom Kippur War. 

Although Sadat could claim many enemies, members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad were held accountable for the murder.

Sadat was protected by four layers of security and eight bodyguards, and the army parade should have been safe due to ammunition-seizure rules.  

The Murder
As Egyptian Air Force Mirage jets flew overhead, distracting the crowd, Egyptian Army soldiers and troop trucks towing artillery paraded by.

One truck contained the assassination squad, led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli. As it passed the tribune, Islambouli forced the driver at gunpoint to stop. From there, the assassins dismounted and Islambouli approached Sadat with three hand grenades concealed under his helmet.

Sadat stood to receive his salute (Anwar's nephew Talaat El Sadat later said, "The president thought the killers were part of the show when they approached the stands firing, so he stood saluting them"), whereupon Islambouli threw all his grenades at Sadat, only one of which exploded (but fell short), and additional assassins rose from the truck, indiscriminately firing AK-47 assault rifles into the stands until they had exhausted their ammunition and then attempted to flee.

Just prior to the assassination, Vice President Mubarak views the parade at the right hand of President Sadat

Sadat and ten others were killed outright or suffered fatal wounds.   Hosni Mubarak, Vice President of Egypt and several others were wounded in the attack, which lasted about two minutes.

New Civil Democratic Movement Established in Egypt
The Civil Democratic Movement, a new political movement, has been established in Egypt by politicians, economists and intellectuals that "supports democracy and social justice" and aims to "face the deteriorating situation of the country".  

At its start, the movement consists of eight political parties and more than 140 public figures, including former presidential candidate Hamdeen Sabbahi and political activist George Ishak.

In addition, the following political groups are members of the Civil Democratic Movement:
  1. Reform and Development Party
  2. Popular Socialist Alliance Party
  3. Al-Dostor Party
  4. Al-Adl Party
  5. Egyptian Social Democratic Party
  6. Al-Karama Party
  7. Masr El-Horreya Party
  8. Bread and Freedom Party
Primary Interests and Focus
  • Formation of a civilian democratic state based on citizenship, constitution and law
  • No discrimination between citizens on the basis of religion, class, race or gender
  • Protection of the freedom of thought and expression
  • Freedom to organize into special interests groups
  • Right to peaceful protest
  • Abiding by a minimum level of social and economic rights
  • Public servants required to operate in a transparent fashion to guard against corruption
  • Democratic accountability through elected legislative and local councils
  • A free media
  • Independent supervisory boards
  • Immediate release of prisoners jailed for peaceful protesting
  • Amendment of pre-trial incarceration and protest laws, based on the Egyptian constitution

Special Reference
"Egyptian leftist, liberal parties launch new Civil Democratic Movement", ahram online, by Staff, December 16, 2017, http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/285401/Egypt/Politics-/--Egyptian-leftist,-liberal-parties-launch-new-Civ.aspx