Timeline of Humanity
in focus: Russia
Timeline: Russia | BeingBlackToday.com
1200 BC
The Balkan People Invade Russia
The Cimmerians, a Balkan people, invade Russia around the area north of the Black Sea, and settle in what in now southern Ukraine.

700 BC
The Iranian Scythians Defeat the Balkans
The Cimmerians, who had occupied Russia for over 500 years were defeated by the Scythians, an Iranian people from central Asia.

The Scythians also controlled the region for over 500 years.

200 BC
Iran (aka Persia)
New Group of Iranians Defeat the Scythians of Ukraine
While still in control of the southern Ukraine region after 500 years, the Scythians were defeated by the invading Sarmatians, another Iranian group of people.

Their cultures merged.  And because they lived in close contact with Greek colonies along the norther coast of the Black Sea, they absorbed many Greek and Roman ways of life through trade, marriage, and other contacts.

Where is Russia?
Russia, Largest Country in the World by Surface Area
According to data published by the United Nations, there are 7.2 billion people in the world, and as of 2016, Russia has the ninth largest population with 144 million people.

As of 2015, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally.

Nuclear Weapon State
It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.

Global Memberships
  • Permanent member of the United Nations Security Council
  • G20
  • Council of Europe
  • Leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS),
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
  • Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
  • World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
  • One of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU)

Goths Conquer the Ukraine
The Goths, a group of germanic tribes from the West invaded the Ukraine to conquered the Iranian Sarmatians who rule the region.

Attila and the Huns Conquer Ukraine
After nearly 200 years of controlling the region, the Goths are invaded and conquered by the Huns, a warlike Asian people.  The Huns ruled the region for just over 80 years.  The Hun empire broke up soon after the death of their leader, Attila the Hun.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Economists, Philosophers, Revolutionaires
Influence on the Development of Communism in Russia and the World
German born Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, were intellectual thinkers, who worked in collaboration in developing many theories and thoughts about the functioning and operation of society.

Communist Manifesto Published
In 1948, they published a pamphlet called The Communist Manifesto, along with the three-volume Das Kapital (Capital: Critique of Political Economy), three most popular works.

All of Marx's theories about society, economics, and politics are collectively know as Marxism.

Capitalism: A Struggle Between Ruling Classes and Working Classes
Marxism theorizes that all of human societies developed from a class struggle between the ruling classes (the bourgeoise) that control the means of production and the working classes (the proletariat) that enable production by selling their labor in return for wages.  Marx predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced conflict and tension that would lead to self-destruction, and replacement by a new system of socialism.

Working Class will Overthrow the Ruling Class
Marx believed that industrialization and capitalism were necessary steps required for society to go through, before the working class would rise up to overthrow the ruling class and institute communism.

Influence of Marx's Philosophy  in Developing Communism in Russia
Many countries banned the distribution of Marx's writings, but not Russia.  With Russia being in the early state of industrialization and primarily an agricultural society, the Russian Emperor didn't believe that Marx's writings posed a serious threat.  Therefore, Marx's philosophy became highly influential in the development of communism in Russia.

Vladmir Lenin
The writings of Karl Marx had a profound impact on Vladmir Lenin, who would go on to become the most influential figure in early Russian communism.  Lenin formed the Bolshevik group,  that rose to power after the collapse of the Russian monarchy.

Crimean War: Russia Goes to War Against Ottoman Empire
In 1853, the Crimean War broke out between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.  Because Great Britain and France objected to Russian expansion in the Black Sea Region, they came to the aid of the Ottoman Turks.  Greatly outnumbered, Russia was defeated.

In 1856, Russia signed a treaty that forced them to give up some of the territory it had taken earlier from the Turks, and to remove its warships from the Black Sea.

Russia Expands into Asia
After its defeat in the Crimean War, Russia began to expand in Asia. They first won disputed territories from China, and soon after the Chinese signed treaties giving Russia lands north of the Amur River and east of the Ussuri River.

By 1864, Russian forces had defeated most of the rebel tribes and won Central Asia.

Original Delegates to First Congress Gathering
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) Formed 1st Congress Held
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) is formed to unite the various revolutionary organizations of the Russian Empire into one party.

The RSDLP program was based on the theories of Karl Marx and Fiedrich Engels -- that true revolutionary potential lay with the industrial working class.

Revolutionary Groups Illegal in Russia
Revolutionaries in Russia were considered to be criminals, and after their first public party meeting, all nine delegates were arrested by the Imperial Russian Police and eventually exiled.

Vladimir Lenin
(born Vladimir Ulyanov)
Russian Communist Revolutionary
Leader of the Bolsheviks
Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) Holds its Second Congress in Brussels
In 1903, the Second Congress of the RSDLP met in exile in Brussels.  However, due to harassment by Belgian authorities, they were forced to disband and meet later in London.

Vladimir Lenin
Before this Second Congress, a young intellectual named Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) joined the party.  In 1902, Lenin published "What is to be Done?", outlining his view of the party's task and methodology.  He advocated a disciplined, centralized party of committed activists who would blend the underground struggle for political freedom with the class struggle of the proletariat (working-class people).

RSDLP Splits into Two Factions:
Bolsheviks vs Mensheviks
Due to irreconcilable differences, at a meeting of the Congress in November of 1903, the RSDLP split into two factions, the Bolsheviks headed by Lenin, and the Mensheviks headed by Julius Martov.  Lenin's faction would end up in the minority and smalller than the Mensheviks until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

The two factions made a number of attempts at reunification, however, the split remained, as they disagreed on the vision of revolution.

Haves vs Have-Nots
Julius Martov, Russian Politician
Leader of the Mensheviks

Lenin and the Bolsheviks pushed for an immediate working-class revolution, while the Mensheviks believed that Russia was in too early a stage of its history to start a working-class revolution.  The Bolsheviks regarded peasants as their allies, while the Mensheviks viewed bourgeois (middle-class) liberals as their revolutionary allies.

First Communist Armed Forces Evolves from Revolution
The first Communist armed forces organization began with the 1905-1917 revolution, when the Bolsheviks began to attract a following.

In December 1905, eight thousand armed workers, called Druzhiniks, led an uprising in Moscow.  Separate and smaller units of them fought against police throughout the country.

Although this revolution failed, its organizers gained valuable military experience.

While the revolution was in progress, the Bolsheviks created illegal units in the army and on naval ships, that continued to function in secret after the uprising was put down.

Triple Entente Defense Agreement Formed Russia - France - Great Britain
In 1894 Russia and France entered an agreement to defend each other against attack.  Ten years later, in 1904, France and Great Britain signed the Entente Cordial (friendly understanding), and Russia followed three years later by signing a similiar agreement with Great Britain in 1907.

The Triple Entente developed from these treaties.

The Great Purge: Political Repression in the Soviet Union
In the mid-1930s, many Soviet citizens opposed the policies of Joseph Stalin, Communist Dictator of the Soviet Union.  Because of this, Stalin began a program of terror called the Great Purge.

Stalin's secret police arrested millions of people.  Neighbors and even family members spied on one another.  Fear spread throughout the country.

Stalin eliminated all real or suspected threats to his power.  Hundreds of thousands of victims, including scientist, poets, writers, artist,  were accused of various political crimes and were quickly executed by shooting, or sent to the Gulag labor camps. Many died at these labor camps of starvation, disease, exposure, and overwork. Stalin also ordered many experimental methods to be used against his victims, such as gassing people to death in batches in the back of a specially made airtight vans driven around the cities to collect the accused.

When trials were staged, arrested Communist leaders were forced to confess to "crimes against the people".  He would then replace these party leaders with young Stalinists he could trust.  The secret police enforced stict loyalty to Stalin's policies on all levels of life.  Stalin controlled everything that was published, taught, or publicly spoken.

It has been estimated that 600,000 people died at the hands of the Soviet government during the Purge.

Syria and Russia Establish Diplomatic Relations Close Bond Begins
After World War II, the Soviet Union took an interest in the Middle East.

On February 1, 1946, the Soviet Union and Syria signed an agreement where the Soviet Union agreed to rovide military help in the formation of the Syrian Arab Army, promising diplomatic and political support in the international arena.

During the Cold War (1947 - 1991), a stronger political bond developed and Syria was considered an ally to the Soviet Union in opposition to the Western powers.

Boris Yeltsin
(1931 - 2007)
President of Russia
1991 - 1999
1st President of Russia Resigns
With an approval rating at an estimated 2%, Boris Yeltsin, after 9 years in office, resigned as President of Russia, by way of a taped message aired on Russian television.

Vladimir Putin, Prime Minister of Russia was then named acting president.

Vladimir Putin, President of Russia
2nd President Reelected to Second Term as 4th President of Russia
When Vladimir Putin left office as the 2nd President of Russia in 2008, he was Russia's most popular politician, and only left office because, by law, he could not serve three consecutive terms.

Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych
Former 4th President of the Ukraine
1950 - Present
2014 Ukrainian Revolution Ukrainian President Flees to Russia
The President of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych, was ousted after a series of violent events involving protestors, riot police and unknown shooters in the capital of Kiev.

This was immediately followed by a series of changes in quick succession in Ukraine's sociopolitical system, including the formation of a new interim government, the restoration of the previous constitution, and the call to hold impromptu presidential elections within months.

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, 13 years earlier, in 1991, the Ukraine had been mired in years of corruption, mismanagement, lack of economic growth, currency devaluation, and an inability to secure funding from public markets.

In 2013, President Yanukovych signed a treaty  with Russian President Vladimir Putin with multi-billion dollar load, which included a provision for Russia to by $15 billion of Ukrainian Eurobonds. 

This agreement sparked civil unrest in Kiev that led to violent clashes between protestors and law enforcement.  As unrest and violence increased, Yanukovych fled the country to Russia and never returned.
Kiev After the Russian-Ukraine Agreement
The newly appointed interim government of Ukraine signed a new agreement in order to secure foreign investments.  In exchange for agreeing to commit to adopting reforms in the legal and political system, as well as financial and economic polies, the interim government secured loans amounting to more than $18 billion from the International Monetary Fund.

Throughout the course of these events, unrest continued, including opposition to the newly formed government.  Pro-Russian unrest in some south-eastern regions was sparked, and Russian-back separatists were also active in the discord.

After the seizure of Perevalne
military base March 9, 2014
Russia Annexes Ukrainian Territory of Crimea


Annexation is the forcible acquisition of a state's territory by another state.  Usually, it is implied that the territory and population being annexed is the smaller and weaker of the two merging entities. It can also imply a certain measure of coercion, expansionism or unilateralism on the part of the stronger of the merging entities.

After the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution, Russia refused to recognize the new interim government.  And, as  part of the wider unrest across southern and eastern Ukraine, where Russian-backed separatists were active, the Russian Federation staged a military intervention and invaded the internationally recognized Ukrainian territory of the Crimea.  
This territory was annexed by Russia, who  immediately began to administer the territory as two federal subjects – the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol.

Russia Membership Suspended from the G8 Forum of World's Wealthiest Countries
As of March 24, 2014, the G8 (Group of 8), is now G7 (Group of Seven), after suspending Russia indefinitely from this forum of the leading advanced world economies.  
 Vladimir Putin, Russian President
This was done in response to Russian President Vladimir Putin’s military intervention and annexation of Crimea.   The event was condemned by many world leaders, as well as NATO, as an illegal annexation of Ukrainian territory.

The economic forum originated in 1975 as G6, bringing together the six governments of the wealthiest developed countries: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.  In 1976, Canada joined.  Russia was added to the group in 1997.

Vladimir Putin, President of Russia
Vladimir Putin Elected to Fourth Term
Valdimir Putin has extended his rule for another six years, after winning his 4th term in the presidential election.

Many analysts believe that it is unlikely that Putin will leave power after his current term, in spite of the current rule of law. Russian presidents are not allowed to serve more that two consecutive terms, so without constitutional reform, Putin will not be able to run for a fifth term. Putin, however, said "I never changed the constitution, especially for it to benefit me and I do not have this kind of intention today".

Donald J. Trump, US President
and Vladimir Putin, Russian Presiden
Russian Counter-Sanctions Retaliate Against the U.S. and Its Allies
Putin Signs Legislation
Russian President Vladimir Putin approved a bill approved by Russian lawmakers last month that is intended to defend Russia's "economic interests and security". The bill was drafted by State Duma Speaker Vyacheslav Volodin and the heads of all four parliamentary caucuses. It was drafted in April after the U.S. Treasury Department placed 24 Russians, including 14 corporations on a sanctions list.

Ties Can Be Severed with Unfriendly Countries
The legislation gives Putin the power to sever ties with unfriendly countries, and to ban trade of goods with those countries.

Russian Citizens Not to Be Impacted by Legislations
Even though the legislation intends to force firms to choose between doing business with Russia or with Russia antagonists, it carefully avoids hurting the Russian economy and dealings with current business partners. The countersanctions do not apply to imported essential items needed by Russian citizens, for which no replacements are produced in Russia.