Timeline of Humanity
Surveying the Past
The Past Timeline | BeingBlackToday.com
Queen Liliuokalani
Last Monarchy of Hawaiian Islands
1838 - 1917
United States Seizes Claim to Hawaii by Annexation
In 1900, seven years after the descendants of missionaries overthrew Hawaii's last ruling monarch, Queen Liliuokalani, the United States officially annexed (seized) the Hawaiian Islands as US territory.

White, Christian missionary descendants, who had become owners of large tracts of land and dominant in the sugar growing industry, gained political control by toppling the monarchy and crushing the armed response by Hawaiians that followed.

With the US take over, Hawaiians became citizens of the United States, with full civil rights, including the right to vote.  With the right to vote, a Hawaiian political party developed -- the Home Rule Party -- whose slogan was "look to the skin".   The Hawaiians exercised their right to vote and filled both houses of the Hawaii legislature.  They attempted to use their political power to preserve Hawaiian culture, but the laws that they passed in this vain, including making witch doctors licensed physicians, was vetoed by the US governor assigned to Hawaii.

The white establishment fought strongly against Hawaiian power, even to the point of using alcohol and women subvert Hawaiian political leaders.

20 Year Milestone
of U.S. Takeover
By the 1920s, Hawaiian tourism had grown and the number of full-blooded Polynesians in Hawaii was only 25,000, down from 40,000 in 1900 and 300,000 in 1800.  The influx of white tourists and a few white settlers made the old white establishment nervous, but was good business.

Along with tourism, pineapple growing had become a large part of the economy.  And Hawaiians did not like plantation work, preferring to cultivate their own little patches of land.  The islands filled with Chinese, Portuguese, Japanese and Filipinos coming to work the plantations.  With this influx of foreigners, many native Hawaiians migrated away from their fishing villages into urban areas -- mainly to Honolulu's poorest neighborhoods. And within these poor neighborhoods, the death rate soared from tuberculosis and syphilis.
Suggestion: View the "American Experience: Hawaii's Last Queen" DVD, available at most local libraries, for additional (and more engaging) information.


George Henry White
Lawyer, Congressman, Banker
Co-founder of All African-Descended Town
Last African-Descended Congressman of the Jim Crow Era
In a period of increasing disenfranchisement of blacks in the South, George White was the last of five African Americans who were elected and served in Congress during the Jim Crow era of the late 1800s.  After them, no African would be elected from the South until 1972, after federal civil rights legislation was passed in 1965 to enforce constitutional voting and civil rights for citizens. No Africans were elected to Congress from North Carolina until 1992.

Early Life
George White was born in North Carolina, to a slave mother and a free, mixed-race father, Wiley Franklin White, who worked as a laborer in a turpentine camp.  He had one older brother, John.

In 1857, with his two sons in tows, George White’s father married Mary Anna Spaulding, a woman of mixed race.  Mary Spaulding’s grandfather, Benjamin Spaulding, was born into slavery, of a white plantation owner and African slave woman, however, his father freed him when he became a young man.  At the time George married his granddaughter, Benjamin Spaulding had acquired more than 2300 acres of pine woods land.  George and Mary White had produced several children.

Education: 1874 - 1879
In 1874, White entered Howard University, a historically black college, in Washington, DC, and became certified as a schoolteacher.  After college, he was hired as a principal at a North Carolina school.  And, as a legal apprentice under former Superior Court Judge William J. Clarke, he began to read and study the law.  In 1879, at the age of 27, White was admitted to the North Carolina bar.

Marriage and Family
1879: Married Fannie B. Randolph who died in 1880 soon after giving birth to their daughter Della.
1882: Married Nancy J. Scott, who died that same year.
1886: Married Cora Lena Cherry, with whom he had three children, Mary Adelyne, Beatrice Odessa (who died young), and George Henry White Jr.  Cora Lena died in 1905.
1915: Married Ellen Avant MacDonald of North Carolina, who survived him.

All of his children died (including Della) died before reaching adulthood, except for Mary Adelyne, who died in 1974.

Political Career
1880: Elected to a single term in the North Carolina House of Representatives, where he helped to pass a law creating four state schools for Africans, in order to train more teachers, and then went on to develop one of the schools in its early years, acting as principal and encouraging students to go into teaching.

1884: Won election to the North Carolina Senate.
1886: Elected prosecuting attorney for the 2nd judicial district of North Carolina.
1896: Elected to the U.S. Congress, representing the predominantly black 2nd District
1898: Re-elected to Congress

White used the power of his office to appoint several African postmasters across his district.  He also worked for African civil rights, consistently highlighting issues of justice, and relating discussions on the economy, foreign policy and colonization to the treatment of black in the South. 

1900: Introduced the First
In Congress to Make Lynching a Federal Crime
On January 20, 1900, White introduced the first bill in Congress to make lynching a federal crime to be prosecuted by federal courts; it died in committee, opposed by southern white Democrats.  A month later, as the House was debating issues of territorial expansion internationally, White defended his bill by giving examples of crimes in the South. He said that conditions in the region had to "provoke questions about ...national and international policy.  He said,

"Should not a nation be just to all her citizens, protect them alike in all their rights, on every foot of her soil, in a word, show herself capable of governing all within her domain before she undertakes to exercise sovereign authority over those of a foreign land—with foreign notions and habits not at all in harmony with our American system of government? Or, to be more explicit, should not charity first begin at home?"

1901: Declined to Seek 3rd Term If Not Treated as a Man
White chose not to seek a third term, telling the Chicago Tribute, “I cannot live in North Carolina and be a man and be treated as a man.”  He delivered his final speech in the House on January 29, 1901:

"This is perhaps the Negroes' temporary farewell to the American Congress, but let me say,Phoenix-like he will rise up some day and come again. These parting words are in behalf of an outraged, heart-broken, bruised and bleeding, but God-fearing people; faithful, industrious, loyal, rising people – full of potential force.

On September 26, 2009, President Barack Obama referred to White's farewell speech in his remarks at the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation's Annual Awards Dinner in Washington, DC.

1901: Town of Whitesboro,
New Jersey Founded Exclusively for Blacks
George went on to become primary investor in the purchase of over 2,000 acres for building a town exclusively for Blacks, without the pressures of racism.  Shares were sold and the town of Whitesboro, named in his honor, was built and developed by the African community.

New Jersey
Whitesboro, New Jersey
Town Founded by Black Investors Exclusively for African-Descended People
Whitesboro was founded about 1901 by a prominent group of black American investors, known as the African-American Equitable Industrial Association, founded by Rev. J.W. Fishburn and four other members of the Cape May City’s AME Zion Church.   During this period, there was a “Black Town” movement, where black Americans in the South and North attempted to carve out a place in American where they could live on their own terms, in a world in which they were surrounded by racism and a push for racial separation.  Most of those early settlements survive only in memories.

Self-Help in Response
to White Resistance of Blacks
In Their Communities
Booker T. Washington
Inspires Purchase

White people in Cape May City were creating havoc for Blacks within the city, including introducing some KKK activity.  Inspired by the self-help philosophy of Booker T. Washington, an investment group was formed to purchase 2,000 acres of land approximately ten miles north of Cape May City, exclusively for Blacks, at a cost of $14,000. 

George Henry White
Principal Investor
Town's Namesake

The group investors included Paul Laurence Dunbar, Booker T. Washington, and George Henry White, the town’s namesake and principle investor. 
Shares Sold by
Investment Group
to Colonize the Land
George White and the other investors wanted to create a self-reliant community for blacks, without the discrimination faced the southern states. Four months after the purchase was finalized, they began selling shares to the planned community to African Americans from North and South Carolina and Virginia.

Prospective colonists had to be of good character, and in the spirit of Washington needed to possess steady and industrious habits. Once approved, a colonist would receive a number of lots, each 50 feet by 150 feet (about a sixth of an acre) for a down payment of $5 per lot and a promise to till the land.

Continued Investment
Made in the Community
In addition to purchasing the initial land for the town, the George H. White Land Improvement Company reinvested its profits back into the community. Although most of the town’s residents were preoccupied with farming the land, many residents were employed by the Improvement Company to construct the first buildings and roads in the community.

Growth of Whitesboro
Whitesboro's population grew steadily, reaching 100 residents by 1906. By 1909 Whitesboro boasted two churches, an industrial school for children, a railroad station, a post office and a hotel, all built by residents.  The town was also on three railroad lines including one that went east to the Atlantic Coast. The slow steady growth in population continued until the Great Depression. Nonetheless, the town survived and continues to exist today with approximately 1,000 residents.

Vladimir Lenin
(born Vladimir Ulyanov)
Russian Communist Revolutionary
Leader of the Bolsheviks
Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) Holds its Second Congress in Brussels
In 1903, the Second Congress of the RSDLP met in exile in Brussels.  However, due to harassment by Belgian authorities, they were forced to disband and meet later in London.

Vladimir Lenin
Before this Second Congress, a young intellectual named Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) joined the party.  In 1902, Lenin published "What is to be Done?", outlining his view of the party's task and methodology.  He advocated a disciplined, centralized party of committed activists who would blend the underground struggle for political freedom with the class struggle of the proletariat (working-class people).

RSDLP Splits into Two Factions:
Bolsheviks vs Mensheviks
Due to irreconcilable differences, at a meeting of the Congress in November of 1903, the RSDLP split into two factions, the Bolsheviks headed by Lenin, and the Mensheviks headed by Julius Martov.  Lenin's faction would end up in the minority and smalller than the Mensheviks until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

The two factions made a number of attempts at reunification, however, the split remained, as they disagreed on the vision of revolution.

Haves vs Have-Nots
Julius Martov, Russian Politician
Leader of the Mensheviks

Lenin and the Bolsheviks pushed for an immediate working-class revolution, while the Mensheviks believed that Russia was in too early a stage of its history to start a working-class revolution.  The Bolsheviks regarded peasants as their allies, while the Mensheviks viewed bourgeois (middle-class) liberals as their revolutionary allies.


Niagara Civil Rights Movement Founded

First Communist Armed Forces Evolves from Revolution
The first Communist armed forces organization began with the 1905-1917 revolution, when the Bolsheviks began to attract a following.

In December 1905, eight thousand armed workers, called Druzhiniks, led an uprising in Moscow.  Separate and smaller units of them fought against police throughout the country.

Although this revolution failed, its organizers gained valuable military experience.

While the revolution was in progress, the Bolsheviks created illegal units in the army and on naval ships, that continued to function in secret after the uprising was put down.

Los Angeles, Calfiornia
William Joseph Seymour
1870 - 1922
Pentecostal Movement Begins with Baptism in the Holy Spirit and Speaking in Tongues
William J. Seymour was one of the most influential individuals in the revival movement that grew into the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements, along with other figures such as Charles Parham, Howard A. Goss, and Frank Bartleman.

Seymour emphasized racial equality, which drew many historically disenfranchised people to the movement, and due to his influence the revival grew very quickly.

His revivals were characterized by ecstatic spiritual experiences accompanied by amazing physical healing miracles, dramatic worship services, speaking in tongues, and inter-racial mingling. The participants were criticized by the secular media and Christian theologians for behaviors considered to be outrageous and unorthodox, especially at the time. Today, the revival is considered by historians to be the primary catalyst for the spread of Pentecostalism in the 20th century.

Early Life
During a time when Louisiana had the highest lynching rates in the nation, William Seymour was born to former slaves, Simon and Phyllis Salabar Seymour, in Centerville, Louisiana.  He was baptized as Catholic, while his family attended a Baptist church throughout his early life.

Adult Life
At the age of 20 years, Seymour left the South to travel around states in the north, escaping the horrific violence aimed at Africans in the south during this period.  He continued to face racial prejudice in the north, but it was not as violent as faced in the South.

1895:  At the age of 25 years, Seymour became a born-again Christian, while attending the Simpson Chapel Methodist Episcopal Church in Indianapolis, where he had moved.
David Sidney “D.S.” Warner
Theologian, Initiator of Church Movements
A Founder of the Church of God
1842 - 1895

During his travels, Seymour was influenced by D.S. Warner’s holiness group dedicated to racial equality.  His views about the equality of all mankind influenced Seymour’s entire theology.

1901: At the age of 31 years, Seymour moved to Cincinnati, where his views on holiness and racial integration continued to be shaped by attending a Bible college.  During this time, he contracted smallpox and subsequently went blind in his left eye.

After overcoming smallpox, Seymour traveled to Jackson, Mississippi, where he visited Charles Price Jones, the founder of the Church of Christ (Holiness) U.S.A.  – faith healing and speaking in tongues. Seymour left the South with a very firm commitment to his beliefs.

1906: At the age of 36 years, Seymour attended a newly formed Bible school founded by Charles Parham in Houston, Texas.  Parham’s teachings on the baptism of the Holy Spirit stuck with Seymour and influenced his later doctrine and theology.  However, Seymour did not agree with Parham’s more radical views.

He developed a belief in speaking in tongues as confirmation of the gifts of the Holy Spirit.  He believed that this proved that the person was born-again and could go to Heaven.

After only six weeks at Parham’s school, Seymour left, against Parham’s wishes, to accept an offer to pastor a church in Los Angeles.

Azusa Street Revival
Pentecostal Movement Begins
Apostolic Faith Mission on Azusa Street

Seymour arrived in Los Angeles and began preaching at Julia Hutchins’ Holiness Church, in late February.  Within two weeks, Julia Hutchins threw him out of her church and padlocked the church door, outraged over Seymour’s claims on tongue-speech.

Leaders of Apostolic Faith Mission.  Seymour in front row, second from the right; Jennie in back row, third from left

After a short while, Seymour began holding prayer group meetings at the home where he stayed.  The group quickly grew too large for his friend’s home, and was moved to another friend’s home. 

During the course of one of the prayer meetings, Seymour laid hands on the friend in whose house his was staying and the friend began speaking in tongues.  Seymour received the Holy Spirt baptism three days later.  Soon the group grew too large for the second house as well, and the Azusa Street Revival was born, after the group moved to an old African Methodist Episcopal church building on Azusa Street.

Racial Equality
In the beginning, Africans and whites worshipped together at the same alter, against the normal segregations of the day.  Seymour rejected existing racial barriers in favor of unity in Christ, as well as barriers to women in church leadership.  Soon the membership included Africans, whites, and Latinos.

Troubles Brewing
L.A. Times article criticizing the behavior of the revivalists at Azusa Street

From Azusa Street, Seymour began preaching his doctrinal beliefs, which from 1906 to 1909 became known as the Azusa Street Revival.

Seymour fell under intense scrutiny of mainstream Protestants, some felt that his views were heresy, or violated standard religious teachings, while others accepted his teachings and preached them to their own congregations.  Seymour’s revival came to be widely known as “Pentecostalism”.  Charles Harrison Mason, founder of the Church of God in Christ, received the baptism of the Holy Spirit at the revival.

Charles Parham Denounces
The Azusa Revival as False
Charles Parham came to Los Angeles and preached at the Azusa revival several times, but became disgusted with the ecstatic practices and racial mixing in worship.  He then began to preach that God was disgusted with the state of the revival, and was eventually removed by force.

Parham followed up by attacking Seymour and Azusa as being from the devil.  He claimed that speaking in tongues had to be a recognizable human language, and that Seymour had corrupted the teaching by allowing for a “divine” language that could not be understood by human ears.  Parham denounced Seymour’s doctrine as unscriptural and the racial mixing as an abomination.

1908: Seymour’s Authority
and Influence Gradually Undermined
Africans Claim Favoritism Shown White Pastors. By 1908, race issues started to become divisive.  Seymour often chose white pastors instead of black pastors in charge whenever he left Los Angeles, causing black members to fear the mission was in danger of being taken over.  Racial segregation became continually came into focus and became a larger issue as time went on.

Charges of Embezzlement.  Although eventually unfounded, Seymour was accused of embezzling funds from the Azusa Revival mission.

Rival Ministers.  Ministers formally affiliated with Azusa began to open their own missions and drew people away from the main revival.

Worshippers Do Not
Approve of His Marriage
William and Jennie Seymour

In May 1908, Seymour married Jennie Moore Evans, but the church saw it as a violation of sanctification, which resulted in a loss of membership. 

Newsletter: Apostolic Faith
Can No Longer be Published
The coeditor of his newsletter, Apostolic Faith, used for spreading his ideas, abruptly left with the newsletter and mailing lists, and moved to Portland, and refused to give control of the paper back to Seymour.

Close Friend Turns Against Him.  William Durham was a close friend and fellow Pentecostal preacher of Seymour.  While on a revival tour, Seymour asked Durham to serve as visiting preacher.  Durham’s views on sanctification were so extreme and shocking, that Seymour’s wife felt forced to padlock him out of the church, until Seymour returned.

Durham began to attack Seymour publicly, claiming Seymour was no longer following the will of God and was not fit to be a leader, devastating Seymour and causing a big split in the Pentecostal community.  Durham’s death within a year did little to heal the split.

1922.September.28 Death
On September 28, 1922, Seymour suffered two heart attacks, and died in his wife Jennie's arms.  Jennie Seymour died on July 2, 1936, and was buried next to him.

Atlanta, Georgia
Troops posted after the riot
Atlanta Georgia: Racial Cleansing Leads to Three-Day Race Riot
On September 22, 1906, whites began rampaging through Atlanta’s downtown streets and continued for three days.  When it was over, as many as 40 Africans were dead, while only two whites died, one of whom was a woman who died of a heart attack after seeing the mob outside her home.  This incident made national and international headlines, and impacted the course of civil and human rights in the United States.

Whites Resentful of
Success of Africans
Racial tensions had been building in Atlanta for some time, as whites began to develop a strong resentment for the wealth of industrious African citizens working and running their businesses in and near the business district.  Competition for jobs between white wage-workers and Africans was also a source of troubles for whites.

Media Used as Propaganda
Tool to Create Fear and
Anti-African Sentiment

Meanwhile, rival white newspapers, working as operatives of the two primary candidates for governor of the state, entered into competition to see which of them could print the most sensational accusation of alleged assaults of white women by African males, and report other sensationalized accounts of the vices of Africans, coined with the term “negrophobia”. 

Because sensationalized accounts sold newspapers, Atlanta newspapers had been publishing lurid and dramatic accounts of Africans attacking white women for over two months, prior to the riots, suggesting that eleven assaults of white women being attacked in their homes occurred within the two month period.   

The Evening News” newspaper went so far as to send out an emotional call , "Men of Fulton, what will you do to stop these outrages against the women? ... Shall these black devils be permitted to assault and almost kill our women, and go unpunished?"

Rev. Thomas Dixon, Jr.
Minister, Novelist, Segregationist
Regarded KKK as Heroic

In addition, there was a popular anti-black play, “The Clansman”, produced by Rev. Thomas Dixon Jr., a segregationist, and supporter of the KKK, that served to further increase fears and tension.

Too Much Mingling
Among Africans and
Whites Becomes Concerning
Saloons that lined downtown’s
Decatur Street where Africans
and whites mingled,
concerned many Atlantans.

There were a number of saloons and bars that lined downtown’s Decatur Street, where Africans and whites mingled, and this concerned many Atlantans.  The whites of Atlanta feared that the city’s segregation and separation of the races was breaking down.

During the course of the election, the gubernatorial candidates of 1906, Hoke Smith and Clark Howell, two of Atlanta’s most prosperous citizens, chose to appeal to racial fears and manipulate racial images, as part of their campaigns.  The two went so far as to jointly propose that over 200,000 African males, of voting age, be removed and entirely disenfranchised from politics, because as reported in the “Journal” newspaper, working in the interest of Hoke Smith, “We are the superior race and do not intend to be ruled by our semi-barbaric inferiors”.  And the “Constitution” newspaper, serving as mouthpiece for Clark Howell, then accused Hoke Smith of appointing Africans to federal positions while a member of Grover Cleveland’s cabinet (which he strongly denied).  Meanwhile, Hoke Smith had one of his supporters, publish the following headlines in the magazine that he owned, “What does Civilization owe to the negro? Nothing! Nothing! NOTHING!

Whites in Atlanta Lose
their Minds and Become
Rabid, Savage Attack
Animals for Three Days
The State Militia was
called to restore order

On September 22, 1906, mobs of whites roamed the city’s downtown streets, destroying the property of Africans, beating and shooting them, pulling them from street cars to murder them.  The first incident recorded was the murder of an African bootblack who was chased down and beaten to death with fists and clubs by a drunken white mob.  And, from that point on, the mobs chased down and killed every African that they saw in the street, yelling “Save our women!”  “Kill the Niggers!”

With the actions by whites, rumors began to spread that Africans were planning an uprising.  Meanwhile, in African communities, horrifying tales were told of widespread lynchings by crazed whites, and seeking strength in number, several hundred Africans stood against the white mobs in silent protest, near Decatur Street.  For their trouble, several thousand white men, armed with iron bars, hatchets, knives and an assortment of other weapon, attacked the group of protesting Africans, who attempted to fight back, but were forced to flee.

Soon, the white mobs ruled the streets of Atlanta, and stalked the streets for Africans after dark.  Policemen did little to stop their violent rampage, and in several instances aided the rioters. 

The cut streetcar lines and pulled several African from the cars and clubbed them to death, including women.  The shattered plate glass windows of African businesses all along Decatur. 

Africans Flee City
Blacks began to flee the city at night.  Presidents of Clark University and the Gammon Theological Seminary sheltered frightened black women and children and gave them refuge on campus.  White families sheltered their African servants.  The Aragon Hotel and Silvermans restaurant locked up their African workers overnight to keep them from harm.

A Defining Moment
for Africans that
Spurred the Founding
of the NAACP
Walter White
Civil Rights Activist, Journalist
Novelist, Essayist
Exec. Secretary of NAACP

Many peoples’ lives were forever changed by witnessing these events, and it became a galvanizing and defining moment in the African community. Most notably, Walter White, who would eventually lead the NAACP for almost 25 years and direct a broad program of legal challenges to racial segregation and disfranchisement., witnessed the riots at the age of 13 years, and W.E.B DuBois was a professor at Atlanta University, both pointed to the riots as being a pivotal point.

What White witnessed, standing in the window of his family’s downtown home, frightened and horrified him. Du Bois secured himself and his wife in their apartment and later did what was completely out of character for him: he purchased a gun that he fully expected to use if his family was threatened. After the riot, Du Bois penned a poem, “The Litany of Atlanta,” a searing and powerful statement.  And Walter White detailed his family’s experience during the riot, in his 1948 memoir, “A Man Called White”.

W.E.B. DuBois
Sociologist, Historian
Educator, Writer, Editor
Civil Rights Activist
1868 - 1963

The riot convinced Du Bois that the best protection for African Americans in the South as well as the North was an organization dedicated to promoting social justice and protection of legal rights. He helped found the NAACP in 1909. Walter White, who did not know Du Bois at the time, later attended Atlanta University and, after graduating, was recruited by the NAACP in 1918 to work in their New York office. Du Bois at the time worked as the founding editor of the NAACP’s magazine, The Crisis.

Outcomes for Average
Citizens of African Community

In the years after the riot, African were most likely to live in settled black communities, which were most likely found to the west of the city near Atlanta University or in eastern downtown. Black businesses were moved to the east, where the thriving black business district Sweet Auburn soon developed.  There was also an increase in the interest in voting.

Some Africans modified their opinions on the necessity of armed self-defense, even though they were often warned and discouraged from considering an armed political struggle.

Russia - France - Great Britain
Triple Entente Defense Agreement Formed Russia - France - Great Britain
In 1894 Russia and France entered an agreement to defend each other against attack.  Ten years later, in 1904, France and Great Britain signed the Entente Cordial (friendly understanding), and Russia followed three years later by signing a similiar agreement with Great Britain in 1907.

The Triple Entente developed from these treaties.


U.S. Postal Service Bans Mailing of Lynching Postcards
During this period, it was common practice to turn lynching photographs into postcards and sell them in local stores as souvenirs. In 1908 the U.S. Postal Service banned the delivery of these postcards by the U.S. mail service.

However, they remained a popular item, selling well door-to-door.

1911 Lynching of Mother and Son
Laura (33) and L.D. Nelson (14)
With Men, Women, Children Sightseers
In the 80 year span from 1888 – 1968, lynching was common as a form of justice, applicable to all races, with or without a trial.

Within this period, over 4,700 people were lynched in the United States. At the start, whites represented a narrow majority of this number, with Blacks closely following, and then small numbers of a cross-section of races.

However, as time progressed, Blacks became the majority of those being lynched, but more so as a direct result of white supremacist thought pervasive in some communities, rather than as punishment for criminal behaviors.


NAACP Founded
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Japanese Gain Complete Control of Korea
The Japanese government took over the management  of Korean businesses.  They set up many new industries on the peninsula and put them under Japanese control.  They also took much of the land and sold it to Japanese settlers.

Empress of Qing Dynasty, 1905
Ruling Chinese Dynasty Falls Power Struggle Between Nationalist and Communists Begins
The Qing Dynasty, the last of the ruling Chinese dynasties, collapsed in 1911 and finally fell in 1912 (after nearly 300 years) when the last emperor renounced his throne.  China then entered the Warlord Era, with control of much of the country being divided among a group of powerful independent warlords, military leaders with their own private armies.

Soviet Union Endorses Both
Kuomintang Party and
Chinese Communist Party
Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Kuomintang party supporting national unification and who were anti-monarchy, sought the help of Western foreign powers, for over a decade, to defeat the warlords who had seized control of much of Northern China. However, the Western countries ignored Sun Yat-sen's requests, forcing him to turn to the Soviet Union for aid in 1921.  
Soviet leaders responded by equally endorsing and empowering the Kuomintang Party and Chinese Communist Party, thus initiating a struggle for power between the two.

Marcus Garvey Jr. Pan-African Political Leader 1887 - 1940
Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican born political leader and civil rights activist, who sought to bring about unity between all people of Black African descent world-wide, and liberate them from the psychological bonds of racial inferiority.  He was a proponent of and orator for the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements.  He combined the economic nationalist ideas of Booker T. Washington and Pan-Africanists.
1887 - 1907: Early Life
Garvey was the youngest of 11 children, born to a stone mason and farmer father, and a domestic worker mother. His father was known to have a large library, where young Garvey learned to read and self-educate himself.

At the age of 14, he became a printer’s apprentice.  At the age of 16, he traveled to Kingston, Jamaica, and soon became involved in union activities.  At 18 years, he took part in an unsuccessful printer’s strike, at which point his passion for political activism was born.
1908 - 1911: Middle Years
In 1908, at the age of 21 years old, Garvey traveled throughout Central America, working as a newspaper editor and writing about the exploitation of migrant works in the plantations.  He later traveled to London to attend the University of London, while working for the African Times and Orient Review, a Pan-African nationalist news journal.  He returned to Jamaica in 1912.

1912 - 1915: UNIA
Founded in Jamaica
Garvey openly stated that his most influential experience was reading Booker T. Washington’s autobiography Up From Slavery.  Washington believed that African Americans need to improve themselves, showing white America that they deserved equal rights. He repeatedly stressed that African Americans would not benefit from political activism, but from training and knowledge.  Washington then started an industrial training school that embodied his own philosophy of self-help.  

Garvey embraced Washington’s ideas and returned to Jamaica to found the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association ), with the motto “One God! One Aim! One Destiny!”, with the goal of uniting people of Black African descent, world-wide.  Over the course of corresponding with Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee Institute, he traveled to the United States at the age of 29.

1916-1919: Building Businesses
for a Separate Black Nation
Garvey's intent upon visiting the U.S. was to embark upon a lecture tour to raise funds for establishing a school in Jamaica, modeled after Booker T. Washington's Tuskegee Institute. Upon his arrival, he visited Booker T. Washington at Tuskegee, and then met with a number of black leaders.

He found work as a printer by day, and at night he would speak on street corners, much as he had done in London’s Hyde Park.  Garvey thought there was a leadership vacuum among African Americans, and soon began a 38-state speaking tour.
Garvey launched several businesses to advance a separate black nation.  In August 1918, he began publishing the Negro World newspaper, with the intention of being a unifying force among black communities on three continents.  Negro World was used as a platform for expounding upon his ideas and views about Africa and to encourage growth of the UNIA.   
1919: Black Owned
International Shipping Company
In June 1919, the UNIA set up its first business, incorporating the Black Star Line of Delaware, an international shipping company for establishing trade and commerce between African Americans, the Caribbean, South and Central America, Canada and Africa.  At the same time, he launched the Negros Factory Association, a series of manufacturing companies, located in every big industrial center in the Western hemisphere and Africa.
1920: Black is Beautiful
1st UNIA Convention
The UNIA was the largest organization in African American history, and claimed 4 million members, that included people of the Caribbean and Africa, as well as the United States.  In 1920, it held its first International Convention at Madison Square Gardens in New York City.  With 25,000 in attendance, Marcus Garvey spoke of pride in African history and culture.  

He sought to end imperialist rule and create modern societies in Africa.  He believed that the growing black communities in northern U.S. cities could provide the wealth and unity to end both imperialism in Africa and discrimination in the United States.
Prominent Black Leaders
Despise Marcus Garvey
W.E.B. Du Bois
Pan-Africanist and
Civil Rights Activist
While many of the public found his words inspiring, many established black leader felt that his separatist philosophy was counter productive, and that his ambitions conflicted with their organizations.  
W.E.B. Du Bois, a leader in the NAACP, called Garvey “the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America”. Du Bois considered Garvey’s program a complete surrender to white supremacy, an admission that Blacks could never be equal to Whites.  He noted how popular Garvey's separatist idea was with racist thinkers and politicians.  In turn, Garvey felt Du Bois was an agent of the white elite.  
After Garvey met with the imperial giant of the KKK and declared, “I regard the Klan … as better friends of the race than all other groups of hypocritical whites”, African American leaders appealed to the U.S. Attorney General to have Garvey incarcerated.  In addition, years earlier, his beliefs were attacked by prominent Jamaican-Americans in the Daily Gleaner Jamaican newspaper for damaging the reputation of the Jamaican people.

1922:  Marcus Garvey Imprisoned
After Charge of Mail Fraud
and Deported Upon Release
Charges of impropriety began circulating regarding Garvey’s management of his business ventures. And in 1922 he was tried for mail fraud by the U.S. Government.  The Black Star line shipping was a powerful recruiting tool for the UNIA, and its flagship was used in its brochures, but the government found the image used on the brochure to be fraudulent and brought legal action.  (see 1927 Time Capsule).
Final Years
After Garvey’s deportation, he never returned to the United States.  He reconstituted the UNIA in Jamaica and wrote many papers.  In 1935, he made his final move to London.  His public criticisms of Haile Selassie, after Ethiopia was invaded by Facist Italy, alienated many of his remaining followers.  
In his last years, he slid into obscurity. Legend reports that he suffered the indignity of reading his own obituary one month before his June 10th 1940 death.


Forsyth County Georgia
Africans-Descendants Terrorized and Driven From Homes in Largest U.S. Expulsion
In the 1910 census, Forsyth County was recorded as having more than 10,000 whites, 858 blacks and 440 mulattoes (or mixed race), until the largest racial cleansing event in American history.

White Woman Accuses
Two African Men of
Attempted Rape
A 22-year old white woman, Ellen Grice, married to a highly respected farmer accused two African men, Toney Howell and Isaiah Pirkle, of attempting to rape her, until they were interrupted and frightened away by her mother.

Within days, the Sheriff of Forsyth County, William Reid, had arrested and jailed the two men accused, as well as three other African men – Fate Chester, Johnny Bates, and Joe Rodgers.

As the news spread, an African preacher of a local church was overheard to say that the 22-year old woman probably lied about what happened, after she was caught in a consensual act with an African man.  Upon his words spreading to the white community, they took the preacher and nearly horse-whipped him to death in front of the courthouse, before the sheriff rescued him and locked him inside of large courthouse vault, saving his life.

One of the accused men, Toney Howell had an alibi and the charges were dropped for lack of evidence, but they were all still detained in jail.

Tensions Rise and
Martial Law Declared
Rumors began to flow that blacks were planning to dynamite the town, and armed white men patrolled the town to prevent such action.  Fearing a race riot, Governor Joseph Mackey Brown declared martial law, activating the National Guard as peace keepers.

With the five original suspects still under arrest, the sheriff moved the men from Cummings, Georgia to Marietta, Georgia for safety.  However, the Governor intervened and moved the men to the Fulton County jail in Atlanta, for greater protection, but the men were held for trial.

All White Jury
Convicts the Two Men
Accused of Rape
Although it was recorded that Howell had a solid alibi on the day that he was accused of rape, the police reported that Toney Howell eventually confessed to assaulting and raping Ellen Grice.  They also said that he implicated Isaiah Pirkle as his accomplice.  After his confession, he was convicted by an all white jury.

Another White Woman
Claims Rape, by 16-Year Old
An 18-year old white woman, Sleety Mae Crow, accused 16-year old Earnest Cox of rape.  Cox was accused of attacking her from behind, dragging her into bushes, raping her, and beating her head in with a stone, crushing her skull.

Apparently, Earnest Cox had indeed committed this crime, because he brought his older sister and two neighborhood friends to the spot where Crow lay.  Together, they discussed taking her body to the Chattahoochee River, but decided that was too risky, and left her in the woods.

However, the young woman was found the next morning, lying half naked, face down in a pool of dry blood. 

Arrests and Lynching
In Rape & Beating of
18-Year Old Woman
Earnest Cox was immediately arrested and taken to Gainesville, Georgia county jail to avoid white mobs, and then further away to Atlanta.  Police reported Cox freely confessed to the attack. 

Earnest Cox’s sister, Jane, and the two men who reportedly accompanied her with Earnest back to the injured girl, were also arrested.

A crowd of 2,000 whites formed at the county jail in Cumming, where they were held.  Later that day, a lynch mob of about 4,000 whites attacked the jail, shot and killed one of the men in his cell, then dragged his body through the streets and hung his completely mutilated body from a telephone pole.  The other two were hidden from the mob.

Because Cox’s sister entered a plea bargain and testified against her brother and Earnest Knox, both Knox and Oscar Daniel were convicted of rape and murder at trial.  A crowd between 5,000 and 8,000 gather to watch the public hanging of the two young African men.

African Residents Terrorized
And Driven From their Homes
With Property Seized by Whites
In the following months, a small group of men called “Night Riders” terrorized black citizens of Forsyth County Georgia, threatening them to leave in 24 hours or be killed. Those who resisted were subjected to further harassment, including shots fired into their homes, or livestock killed. Some white residents tried to stop the Night Riders, but were unsuccessful. An estimated 98% of black residents of Forsyth County left. 

The Africans owned over 1,900 acres of farmland, and some property owners were able to sell, likely at a loss. The renters and sharecroppers left to seek safer places. Those who abandoned property, and failed to continue paying property tax, eventually lost it, and whites took it over. Many black properties ended up in white hands without a sale and without a legal transfer of title. The anti-black campaign or racial cleansing spread across Northern Georgia, engulfing a half dozen surrounding counties with similar results of whites terrorizing and expelling blacks.

1st (Temporary) Syrian Independence Emir Faisal and His Delegation at 1919 Paris Peace Conference
400 Year Ottoman Rule Ends
Arab and British Troops
Advance into Syria
Damascus and Aleppo Captured
Arab troops led by Emir Feisal, and supported by British forces, capture Damascus and Aleppo, ending 400 years of Ottoman rule.

Arab Self-Rule
Paris Peace Conference
Following the defeat of Germany and the Ottoman Empire in World War I, Emir Feisal promoted Arab self-rule at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference at Versailles.

Fasil King of Syria
and King of Iraq
Emir Feisal of Iraq is proclaimed King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria (Greater Syria) in 1920.  In 1921 he also became King of Iraq (for 12 years). Fasil was a member of the Hashemite dynasty.

Unity Between
Sunni and Shiite Muslims

Faisal fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Muslims to encourage common loyalty and promote pan-Arabism in the goal of creating an Arab state that would include Iraq, Syria and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. While in power, Faisal tried to diversify his administration by including different ethnic and religious groups in offices.

Elaine, Arkansas
Robert L. Hill (1943)
Labor Organizer, Political Activist, Sharecropper
Elaine Riot and Massacre: Arkansas Race Riot
Elaine Arkansas
Home of Cotton Plantations
and Large African Population

Elaine Arkansas is located in the rich cotton lands of the Arkansas Delta.  The entire county, Phillips County, in which it is located was developed for cotton plantations, worked by descendants of freed African slaves.  Today, the population is still mostly African (black), where they outnumber whites in the Elaine by 10-to-1, and by 3-to-1 in the entire county.

Labor Injustices
The Africans of Elaine, and surrounding cities, primarily worked as sharecroppers (required to share their crops with white landowners, in order to use the land for farming and their individual households).

This arrangement between whites and Africans (blacks, African Americans) meant that white landowners controlled the economic power, selling cotton on their own schedule, and not necessarily when the farmers completed production. They also ran high-priced plantation stores where farmers had to buy seed and supplies, and they failed to properly itemize and account for the sharecroppers actual production.

Robert Hill and the
Unionization of African Sharecroppers and Laborers
Robert L. Hill was the founder of the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America, an organization formed to help sharecroppers and tenant farmers to gain better financial arrangement with white landowners. Hill formed his organization in order to force landowners to pay tenant farmers their full shares and to establish union-owned farms.

Hill worked diligently to encourage African sharecroppers and sawmill workers to join his organization and established union chapters in many surrounding towns.

Arkansas newspaper, The Gazette,
publishes propaganda in October 1919, in
support of prevailing political climinate

Elaine Massacre:
African Informants,
Murderous White Mobs
In the fall of 1919, two of the union chapters hired lawyers from Little Rock to try and force fair treatment in the courts. Black informants reported this information to local whites, who tried to keep track of all local meetings organized by Hill. Gunfire broke out at a September 30 meeting of 100 African (black, African American) farmers of the Hoop Spur chapter and a white man was killed; hundreds of whites poured into the area, attacking blacks throughout the county during that night and the next days.  This was known as the Elaine Massacre, where over 200 Africans (blacks, African Americans) were killed, and a total of 5 whites. 

Robert L. Hill Flees Arkansas
Hill was forced to flee Arkansas for Kansas, soon after whites went on their rampage.  Once in Kansas, Hill was arrested, but the Governor of Kansas refused to extradite him, speculating that a fair trial was impossible and that he’d likely be harmed. In his interest, the NAACP worked on his behalf with the state and federal authorities. Eventually, federal charges were dropped and a year later, Hill was released from jail. Despite Hill’s relief, 122 other Africans (blacks, African Americans) were prosecuted, 73 for murder. All of those prosecuted were rapidly convicted by all white juries.

For the next 40, or so, years, Hill worked for railroad companies in the Midwest, until his death.

Criticisms of Hill
Hill fused music, religious imagery, and patriotism into his organizing efforts. Some critics labeled him as a demagogue. There were unsubstantiated claims at the time that Hill organized the union for his own economic benefit. Hill, in a letter, denied any attempt to kill white plantation owners in Phillips County, stating that it would be senseless to murder landowners there when he had local chapters in "25 to 30 counties.

Racial Cleansing in Corbin, Kentucky
A mob of 125 gun-toating mob of white men stormed through Corbin, Kentucky announcing their mission to run the blacks out of town. They proceded to round up all the Africans in town and march them to the railroad depot.

Oral histories of the event were collected in Corbin during the 1970s as part of the country's bicentennial celebration. These interviews were supplemented by an unusually large number of documents at the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. For example, after Steve Rogers, one of the ringleaders of the mob, went to prison, he twice petitioned the governor -- once for a pardon and once to have his sentence commuted. In his petition for a pardon, which is now in the sate archives, he explains what he did and tries to justify his role. File with it are the petitions of others who supported or opposed Rogers; the petitioners also describe what they saw the night of the cleansing.

Hundreds of Africans
Workers Enter Town to
Perform Contract Work
The railroad was Corbin's lifeblood, and the railroad brought Africans to Corbin. Although Corbin had some sixty long-time African residents according to the 1910 census, in 1919 the railroad had brought in a black work crew estimated at between 200 and 400 men. For a town of 2,800 peple, this was a substantial increase. These laborers ate and slept on trains parked in the rail yard only a short distance from where they were building new facilities. In addition a paving contractor, hired to upgrade the town's dirt streets, had imported his own black work crew.

Townspeople Unnerved
by the Appearance of 
100s in African Work Crews
The townspeople were unnerved by the sudden appearance of so many Africans in town, and began to complain that they were responsible for a crime wave. As one of the town's lawyers describe it, the African population "was a menancing and floating one, very gregarious in habits, and lawless in acts." Oscar Little said that the expulsion occurred because "colored folks were trying to force themselves on the white people here and they just wouldn't stand for it."

Multiple, Colorful Accounts 
on What Parcipitated the
Mob Action, All Themed on
Ill Actions of African Workers
After this, there are a multitude of story variations, usually focused on some waywardness of the African workers, as to what actually occurred to parcipitate the start of the mob riot.

White Mob Goes
on City-wide Rampage
The white mob proceeded to throw rocks at houses and kick in the front doors of African residents who had established themselves in Corbin, their homes were ransacked, and they were led at gunpoint to the Colored Waiting Rom of the train station and ordered to leave town. They went from home to home, until all African residents were corralled into the train station. They hunted down blacks throughout the town, until they felt that they had discovered all of them.

Africans Shipped out
of Town on Trains
The white surrounded the ever growing crowd of black in the Colored Waiting Room, until the blacks were finally loaded on to a least two different trains, one group headed for Knoville and the other to Louisville.

Population of Africans
Down to Three, with
one Nicknamed "Nigger"
In the first few weeks after the cleansing, a few blacks tried to return, and attempted to return to their work. However, none stayed longer that the day they arrived, out of fear for their safety.
By 1920, there were only three blacks living in Corbin: Emma Woods and her sixty-five-year old boarder, Steve Stansbury and the affectionately nicknamed "Nigger", Dennis.


Ann Cole Lowe
1898 - 1981
1st Nationally Acclaimed Black Fashion Designer
The one-of-a-kind designs made by Ann Cole Lowe were very popular among high society for about 40 years.  In 1953, she designed Jackie Kennedy’s wedding dress and gowns for her bridal party. Her designs are in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Jackie Kennedy Wearing Gown
Designed by Ann Cole Lowe
Lowe’s great grandparents were a slave women and an Alabama plantation owner. She gained an interest in sewing from her grandmother and mother, who were both seamstresses for the first families of Montgomery and other members of high society.

After a failed marriage, Lowe and her son move to New York City, where she attended S.T. Taylor Design School. The school was segregated and Lowe was required to attend classes in a room alone. After graduating in 1919, she moved to Tampa, Florida t open her first dress salon. Later returning to New York, she work for many of the high-end department stores.

The French in Syria
France Gains Control
of the Newly
Independent Syria
San Remo Conference:
Europeans Meet to Divide

Conquered Ottoman Empire
The San Remo conference was an international meeting, held in Italy, after World War I to divide the Ottoman territories captured during the war.   The meeting was held from 19 to 26 April 1920, and attended by representatives of the four Principal Allied Powers of World War I: Britain, France, Italy, and Japan, as well as Greece and Belgium.

France Granted Syria
British Granted Palestine
During this meeting, Great Britain and France claimed administration of Syria and Mesopotamia.  And more importantly, international recognition was given to France for its claims in Syria.  As a result of the conference, Syria-Lebanon were placed under French mandate and Palestine under British control.

King Feisal of Arab Kingdom
of Syria Forced to Flee

Before French Occupation
With his sovereignty ignored, and his territories falling under French military and economic control, King Feisal fled his country just ahead of French occupation.

The French in Syria
French Separate and Divide Population of Syria into Three Regions
The French separated the population of Syria into three distinct, governing regions – the Alawi Muslim sect (regarded as heretics by Sunnis) on the coast, the Druze Muslims in the South , and the majority Sunni population in Lebanon.

Chicago Illinois
Earl "Fatha" Hines
Jazz Musician and Bandleader
1st African American to Perform on Radio and Most Influential in Jazz Piano
Earl Hines was one of the most influential figures in the development of jazz piano.  He was noted as a trailblazer, his unique style, and credited with changing the style of modern piano.   Many famed musicians sung praises to him, including Dizzy Gillespie (a member of his big-band), Charlie Parker, Herbie Hancock, Horace Silver, Erroll Garner, Art Tatum, with Count Basie saying that he was “The greatest piano player in the world”.

Earl Hines grew up surrounded by music, with his father playing cornet and leading the Pittsburgh Eureka Brass Band, and his stepmother a church organist.  He began playing organ for a local Baptist church at the age of 11.  Over the course of time, he became known for having a good ear and good memory, able to replay songs that he heard in theaters and park concerts.  Earl spent the majority of his youth playing piano all around Pittsburgh.

At the age of 17, with his father’s approval, he moved away from home and took a job playing piano in a nightclub, where in return he got boarding, two meals a day, and $15 a week.  Earl also worked for and traveled with Lois Deppe, a well-known baritone concert artist, as his concert accompanist.  In 1921 Hines (age 18) and Depp became the first African Americans to perform on radio.  And while still in the very early days of recordings, Hines and Depp recorded several records, most of which were published.
Earl Hines and Lois Depp
In the early 1920s, Chicago, Illinois was the jazz capital of the world, and in 1925, Hines moved to there and began playing in clubs.  He eventually joined the Carroll Dickerson band, with whom he toured the Pantages Theater Circuit to Los Angeles and back.  

Upon his return, within the same year, Hines met a 24 year old Louis Armstrong at the Chicago Black Musicians’ Union, and the two began playing clubs together and developing a fast friendship.  Starting with this period, Hines’ unique style of play, his departure from what other pianists were playing received first early notoriety.  

Louis Armstrong and Hines became a performing duo, playing the same clubs, and joining the same bands.  Eventually, Louis Armstrong managed his own band, with Hines as his pianist.  Armstrong and Hines then recorded some of the most important jazz records ever made.
At the age of 25, in December 1928, Hines reached the pinnacle of jazz ambition --- leading his own big band, at the Grand Terrace Café of Chicago.  Notorious gangster, Al Capone controlled the Grand Terrace.  And for the next 12 years and through the worst of the Great Depression and Prohibition, his band was “The Orchestra” at the Grand Terrace, with 28 musicians, doing 3 to 4 shows a night.  It was common for soon to be jazz revolutionaries, including Charlie Parker and Billy Eckstine, to work in his band.  And all band members were personally instructed by Mr. Al Capone to never speak a word about anything seen or overhead at the club, at the risk of death.

The Birth of Bebop
From the Grand Terrace, His and his band broadcast on live, open mikes, for serveral years.  Each summer, he toured his whole band for three months, including through the South – the first black big-band to do so.  They were the very first Black band to travel extensively through the South, having to deal with Jim Crow laws, bombs, death threats, and the ordeal of finding places to eat or stay overnight.  In 1940, the Grand Terrace Café suddenly closed, and Hines took his band on the road full-time for the next 8 years, touring coast-to-coast across America.

During the early 1940s, and particularly during the 1942-44 musician’s strike, members of the Hines late-night jam-sessions laid the seeds for the emerging new style in jazz --- bebop.  Ellington later said that, “the seeds of bop were in Earl Hines’ piano style”.

Earl "Fatha" Hines from Mark Bunker on Vimeo.

National Kuomintang and Communist Party of China Ally Under Soviet Guidance
First United Front
After the refusal of Western countries to aid the nationalist-led government of Sun Yat-sen against the warlords who had taken control of much of China, after the fall of the Qing dynasty, the Soviet Union, through representative Adolph Joffe, pleadged assistance for China's unification in a joint statement with Sun Yat-sen -- the Sun-Joffe Manisfesto.   This manifesto was a declaration of cooperation among the nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) Party and Communist Party of China (CPC).

The Soviets then arrive in China to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the line of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.  The CPC joined the KMT to form the First United Front.

The Soviets provided much educational material, organization and equipment, including arms.  They also provided education in many of the techniques for mass mobilization, with many of the CPC members becoming instructors.  With this aid, Sun Yat-sen was able to raise a dedicated army, which he hoped to defeat the warlords militarily.

Sultan al-Atrash of Syria
Prominent Arab Druze Sultan
Leads Revolt Against French Rule
In 1925 Sultan Pasha al-Atrash officially declared revolution against France and led a revolt initiated from the Druze Mountain and that eventually spread to engulf the whole of Syria and parts of Lebanon.

Modern Weaponry Wins
the Day for the French
Al-Atrash won several early battles against the French, but in response, the French sent thousands of troops to Syria and Lebanon, from Morocco and Senegal, equipped with modern weapons, allowing the French to regain many cities.

Sultan al-Atrash
Sentenced to Death
The French sentenced Sultan al-Atrash to death, but he had escaped with the rebels to Transjordan and was eventually pardoned. He returned to Syria in 1937 after the signing of the Franco-Syrian Treaty. He was met with a huge public reception.

The Chinese Civil War Begins
In 1927, the rivalry between the Kuomintang (KMT) and Chinese Communist Party (CPC) evolved into a civil war that was to span nearly 25 years.  (see 1911 and 1923 ASIA)

The conflict eventually results in two separate, unofficial states, the Kuomintang's Republic of China (ROC), located in Taiwan, and the communist People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China, each claiming to be the legitimate government of China.

Second United Front:
Conflict Temporarily Halts 
to Fight Japanese Invasion
In 1937, the two parties came together, to take a stand against a Japanse invasion, forming the Second United Front.  However, as soon as the conflict ended with Japan, the civil war resumed in 1946.

1950: Major Conflict Ends
with Communists Winning War
All major military action ended between the two political factions in 1950, resulting in the communist People's Republic of China maintaining control of mainland China and the nationalist Republic of China being restricted to Taiwan, Penghu, Quemoy, Matsu and severaly outlying islands.

Marcus Garvey Jr.
Pan-African Political Leader
U.S. Concocts Charges to Justify Deporting Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican born political leader who sought unity between all people of Black African descent.  Evidence shows that the U.S. government sought to deport Marcus Garvey, as a radical, eight years prior to his actual deportation.  In 1919, J. Edgar Hoover, then head of the General Intelligence Division, wrote a memo regarding Garvey, stating "Unfortunately, however, he has not yet violated any federal law whereby he could be proceeded against on the grounds of being an undesirable alien, from the point of view of deportation".  He then followed up the memo by opening an investigation in the the activities of Garvey and the UNIA, to find grounds upon which to deport him.

Accused of Mail Fraud
Sentenced to 5 Years in Prison
A charge of mail fraud was brought against Garvey in connection with stock sales of the Black Star Line, based on the fact that the corporation had not yet purchased the ship that appeared in the company's brochure.  The prosecution accused the company of misrepresentation and fraud, by suggesting that it owned the ship in the brochure.  In defense, it was stated that the brochure had been produced in anticipation of completing the purchase of the ship, as they were approaching the final signing phase of the sale.  Garvey in defending himself alienated the  jury in his 3-hour long closing address, where he portrayed as having a "belligerent" manner.  He was the only one of the co-defendents who was found guilty of using the mail service to defraud, and sentenced to the maxium penalty of 5 years in prison.

First Message to the Negroes
Of the World
From Atlanta Prison
Two days after Garvey began his sentence at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary, in February 1925, he penned his well known “First Message to the Negroes of the World from Atlanta Prision”.

Pardon and Deportation
Calvin Coolidge, the 30th President of the United States commuted Garvey’s sentence, and upon his release in November 1927, he was deported back to Jamaica.

Garvey died in London on June 10, 1940 at the age of 52.

Chicago Illinois
The "Black Metropolis" and the Regal Theater of
South Side Chicago Illinois
The "Black Metropolis" is Born
In the early 1900s, the Bronzeville neighborhood -- of the Douglas community, on the South Side Chicago Illinois--- was known as the “Black Metropolis”, after developing into one of the most significant areas of African American.

Within the first three decades of the 1900s, after the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, thousands of African Americans, escaping from the oppression of the South, emigrated to major cities like New York City, Detroit, and Chicago.  In the midst of these waves of migration, the Bronzeville neighborhood in the South Side became home to many African Americans, including many well-noted and highly esteemed black Americans of the time.

The  $1.5 Million Regal Theater
Opens in South Side Chicago
In 1928, it also became home to the Regal Theater, built in the heart of Bronzeville. The $1.5 million structure opened new doors for African Americans in the entertainment business, and hired black managers, ushers, dancers (light-skinned only), and coat checkers, which at the time was unheard of.

It was lavishly and elegantly decorated with large pillars, plush carpeting, velvet drapes, and plush seating for  3,000, making it the first large-scale theater hall built specifically for the African American community.  It created a new nightlife and perfect atmosphere for African American families to go out and have a good time in the city, as  not only music performers, but motion pictures and stage plays were featured there.

Some of the most celebrated Black entertainers in America performed there frequently, including Nat "King" Cole, Cab Calloway, Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughan, Lena Horne, Dinah Washington,Miles Davis, Sammy Davis Jr., Lionel Hampton, Dizzy Gillespie, Duke Ellington, The Jackson 5, and Gladys Knight & The Pips.  In addition, several artists recorded live performances there, including B.B. King and Motown artists Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, Mary Wells, Smokey Robinson.

1968: The Regal Theater Closes its Doors
Eventually, with developments in technology, business began to decline.  Another factor that affected the Regals high unemployment and suffering during the long lasting Great Depression of 1929 to 1939.  Losing more and more business, the owner was eventually forced to file bankruptcy and close down the theater in 1968.  The building was later demolished in 1973.

Proposed Flag of the French Mandate
of Syria and Lebanon
Syrian Nationalist Draft Syria Constitution
Syrian nationalist present a draft constitution for Syria, which is immediately rejected by the French.


Racial Slur Featured in
Mainstream Hit Recording
That's Why Darkies Were Born
Nearly 100 years after the upcropping of free states  in the United States, African-descended people were still primarily persona non grata, held under ridicule and regarded as unwelcomed

In 1931, the popular song writing team of Ray Henderson and Lew Brown (Louis Brownstein), wrote “That’s Why Darkies Were Born”.  Based upon all accounts, the song was not written as an expression of racism, but was intended as conciliatory satire.  It was a mainstream effort, which became a “number one” hit for Kate Smith, one of the most popular singers of the time.  And later, it was also recorded by Paul Robeson, a notoriously popular ‘Black’ singer, actor, and social activist.

Kate Smith, Singer
1907 – 1986

Someone had to pick the cotton,
Someone had to pick the corn,
Someone had to slave and be able to sing,
That's why darkies were born;

Someone had to laugh at trouble,
Though he was tired and worn,
Had to be contented with any old thing,
That's why darkies were born;

Sing, sing, sing when you're weary and
Sing when you're blue,
Sing, sing, that's what you taught
All the white folks to do;

Someone had to fight the Devil,
Shout about Gabriel's Horn,
Someone had to stoke the train
That would bring God's children to green pastures,
That's why darkies were born.

Paul Robeson Rendition:

Paul Robeson, Singer, Actor
Social Activist, Lawyer, Athlete
1898 - 1976

The Writers:

Ray Henderson
1896 - 1970
Ray Henderson
1896 - 1970
Ray Henderson was a popular composer in Tin Pan Alley, an area Manhattan, New York where music publishers and songwriters gravitated and set up business. Working with many lyricists, and primarily with Lew Brown and Buddy De Sylva, he compiled a long list of popular hits.

Lew Brown (Louis Brownstein) wrote songs for many of the top artists of the day and wrote or co-wrote several Broadway shows.

Together, some of their most popular songs include: Bye Bye Blackbird, It All Depends on You, The Best Things in Life Are Free, You're The Cream in my Coffee, Button Up Your Overcoat, You Are My Lucky Star, Keep Your Sunny Side Up, If I Had A Talking Picture of You

Adolf Hitler, German Politician
Chancellor of Germany, Dictator
Leader of the Nazi Party
Hitler Comes to Power as Chancellor of Germany

North Carolina
Uniform and Flag of the
White Supremacist, Anti-Semitic
Silver Shirt Organization
Silver Shirts: Silver Legion of America
1890 Founder’s Early Life
William George Pelley
Extremist, Spiritualist, Mystic
Founder of Anti-Semitic
and Militaristic 
Silver Legion of America

Pelley was born into poverty in Lynn, Massachusetts.  He was born to William George Apsey Pelley and his wife, Grace.  His father was initially a Southern Methodist Church minister, later a small businessman and shoemaker.

1920 Successful Writer
Pelley was largely self-educated writer.  After the end of World War I, in 1918, Pelley traveled throughout Europe and Asia as a foreign correspondent, spending a great deal of time in Russia, during the Russian Civil War. 

Upon his return the U.S., he worked as a journalist and received acclaim for his short stories.  After some time, he moved to Los Angeles to work as a screenwriter.  However, after becoming disillusioned with the film industry, he moved to Asheville, North Carolina.

1932 Galahad College
Founded by Pelley
Over the years, Pelley had become more and more politically active, and after moving to Asheville, North Carolina, Pelley founded Galahad College.  Galahad specialized in correspondence, "Social Metaphysics", and "Christian Economics" courses. He also founded Galahad Press, which he used to publish various political and metaphysical magazines, newspapers, and books.


New York
Williana "Liane" Burroughs
Communist Political Activist
Teacher, Politician
1882 - 1945
1st Woman to Run for Elective Office in New York
Early Life
Williana Jones was born on January 2, 1882, in Petersburg, Virginia.  He mother was born a slave and freed at the age of 16, her father died when Williana was four years old.  He mother moved her family from Viginia to New York City, a haven for many freed slaves, and worked as a cook.  However, Williana and her two siblings spent the next six years of their lives in the Colored Orphan Asylum in Harlem, until their mother came for them.

She attended New York public schools and attended New York City Normal College (Hunter College), where she received her teaching credentials.  At the age of 28, she started her first teaching position, teaching first grade.

1926 Political Career
Workers Communist Party
and then to Soviet Union
Nearing her mid-40s, Willian Burroughs joined the Workers Party.  Around 1931, she became active in the campaigns for defense of the Scottsboro boys, which the Communist Party USA helped in gaining an appeal.  She was also chairman of the Blumberg Defense Council, an organization formed to defend Isidore Blumberg, a teacher removed from the New York public schools systems due to his political views.

The Communist Party sent Burroughs to the 6th World Congress of the Communist International in Moscow in the summer of 1928 as a representative of the American Negro Labor Congress, a Communist Party auxiliary group. Burroughs traveled with her husband and her two youngest sons to the convention, with the boys remaining in the Soviet Union to attend school thereafter. Burroughs would not be reunited with them until 1937.  She became prominent within the party organization and was selected as an alternate delegate to the 6th National Convention of the Communist Party USA in March 1929.

1931 Leaves Soviet Union
for the United States
In January 1931, Burroughs returned to the United States from the Soviet Union, resuming her teaching career.  In 1933 Burroughs spoke out at a meeting of the New York City Board of Education, and in June 1933 Burroughs was dismissed from her post for "conduct unbecoming to a teacher and prejudicial to law and order.

1933 Candidate for
New York Comptroller
1934 Candidate for
Lieutenant Governor
After loss of her teaching position, Burroughs was the Communist Party's candidate for New York Comptroller in the fall of 1933 and the Communist Party's candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York in 1934. She also ran the Harlem Worker's School from 1933 to 1934.

1937 Returns to Soviet Union
Works as Announcer for
Radio Moscow
She returned to the Soviet Union in the spring of 1937, the year of the Great Terror, where she worked as an announcer and editor for the English-language broadcasts of Radio Moscow, the international shortwave news service of the Soviet government.  Burroughs remained in Moscow for virtually the rest of her life. In the spring of 1940 she made a request to return to the United States together with her sons but was persuaded to stay. The war intervened and Burroughs and her sons remained in Moscow until 1945, when she finally managed to return to New York with the younger boy.

1961 DuSable Museum of
African American History


Margaret Burroughs

Her eldest son, Charles Burroughs, who had remained in Moscow, and his wife, Dr. Margaret Taylor-Burroughs, co-founded the DuSable Museum of African American History in Chicago, of which he remained curator until 1980.  A Chicago high school is named after him.

DuSable Museum
Documentary (26:37)

Iran (Persia)
Iranian Government Announces Persia to be Called Iran
In the Western world, Persia was the common name for Iran, but in Persian the country is called Iran.

In 1935, the Iranian government requested countries which it had diplomatic relations with to call Persia "Iran" in all formal communications.  Since then, the use of the word "Iran" has become more common.

The Great Purge: Political Repression in the Soviet Union
In the mid-1930s, many Soviet citizens opposed the policies of Joseph Stalin, Communist Dictator of the Soviet Union.  Because of this, Stalin began a program of terror called the Great Purge.

Stalin's secret police arrested millions of people.  Neighbors and even family members spied on one another.  Fear spread throughout the country.

Stalin eliminated all real or suspected threats to his power.  Hundreds of thousands of victims, including scientist, poets, writers, artist,  were accused of various political crimes and were quickly executed by shooting, or sent to the Gulag labor camps. Many died at these labor camps of starvation, disease, exposure, and overwork. Stalin also ordered many experimental methods to be used against his victims, such as gassing people to death in batches in the back of a specially made airtight vans driven around the cities to collect the accused.

When trials were staged, arrested Communist leaders were forced to confess to "crimes against the people".  He would then replace these party leaders with young Stalinists he could trust.  The secret police enforced stict loyalty to Stalin's policies on all levels of life.  Stalin controlled everything that was published, taught, or publicly spoken.

It has been estimated that 600,000 people died at the hands of the Soviet government during the Purge.

Syria Negotiates with France for Independence
In agreeing to work toward Syrian independence, the French maintain military and economic control and dissolve two of the three artificial regions that they created on the coast and in the south, retaining Lebanon as a separate state.

Shukri al-Kuwatli Elected
First President of Syria
Syrian nationalist, Shukri al-Kuwatli was elected as first president of Syria, and would go on to lead his country to full independence by 1946.

Shukri al-Kuwatli was a principal leader of the National Bloc, a Syrian political party that emerged to fight for Syrian independence while Syria was under French control.  The Block was led by notable conservatives, land owners, tradesmen, lawyers, etc -- including the 50 most rich and powerful families in Syria.

Syria and Russia Establish Diplomatic Relations Close Bond Begins
After World War II, the Soviet Union took an interest in the Middle East.

On February 1, 1946, the Soviet Union and Syria signed an agreement where the Soviet Union agreed to rovide military help in the formation of the Syrian Arab Army, promising diplomatic and political support in the international arena.

During the Cold War (1947 - 1991), a stronger political bond developed and Syria was considered an ally to the Soviet Union in opposition to the Western powers.

Korea Becomes a Divided Nation: 30-Year Control of Korean Peninsula Lost to Russia and the U.S.
The Japanese held control of Korea continuously for 30 years, until forced to surrender to allied forces, bringing an end to World War II.

U.S. Occupies the South
Russia Occupies the North
After Japan's defeat, United States troops moved to occupy the southern half of Korea, while Russian forces occupied the northern half -- each formed separate governments in their occupied half of the country.

For the two years following, the United States, Russia, the two Korean governments and Britain tried to develop a plan for reuniting Korea.  But their attempt at cooperative effort failed, and the problem was submitted to the United Nations (UN) in 1947.

Russia Refuses to Yield to the United Nations
The UN devised a plan to supervise an election to choose one government for Korea, but, the Russians refused to allow UN representatives into the north.

UN Works to Form the South Korean Government
Without cooperation from Russia, the UN supervised an of a national assembly in the south.  This national assembly drew up a constitution and elected Syngman Rhee as president of the newly formed Republic of Korea.

Russia Forms the North Korean Government
Approximately one month after the formation of the South Korean government, communist Russia announced the formation of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Russia and the United States Remove Their Troops from Korea
In December, 1948, Russia announced that all its troops had left Korea.  The United States announced all of its troops withdrawn from South Korea in mid-1949.

Meanwhile, each of the newly formed Korean governments claimed sovereignty over all of Korea.

Syria Gains Independence from France

Syrian Independence
Syria's National Bloc Party Dissolves Splitting into Two Parties
National Bloc, a Syrian political party that emerged to fight for Syrian independence.  Highly instrumental in achieving Syria's independence, the Bloc was led by notable conservatives, land owners, tradesmen, lawyers, etc -- including the 50 most rich and powerful families in Syria.

Out of the Bloc emerged two opposing parties:
  • National Party, based in Damascus
  • People's Party, based in Aleppo. The People's Party was friendly to interests in Hasemite Jordan and Iraq, unlike the National party

Syrian Independence
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party Founded
Calls for Unification of the Arab World
The Arab Ba'ath Party was founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and Zaki al-Arsuzi, based upon an ideology mixing Arab nationalist, pan-Arabism, Arab socialist, and anti-imperialist interests.

Freedom for the Ba'ath Party means freedom from non-Arab control and interference. The party quickly established branches in other Arab countries, but only held power in Iraq and Syria.  

Arab Ba'ath Party and
Arab Socialist Party Merge
In 1952,  The Arab Ba'ath Party merged with the Arab Socialist Party, led by Akram al-Hawrani, to form the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. The newly formed party was a relative success, and became the second-largest party in the Syrian parliament in the 1954 election.

Egypt and Syria
Become Allies
This, coupled with the increasing strength of the Syrian Communist Party, led to the establishment of the United Arab Republic (UAR), a union of Egypt and Syria. 

The Korean War: Russia and U.S. Establish Two Koreas after Victory Over Japan Leading to Civil War
After Japans surrender and the subsequent end of World War II,  the Korea territory that they once controlled was taken over and occupied by Russia (in the north) and the United States (in the south). 

North Korea and South Korea Established by Foreign Powers
Russia established a North Korean government, and with the help of the United Nations, the United States, established a South Korean government.  

Sovereignty Claimed by both North Korea and South Korea
Soon after they formalized the two separate governments in Korea,  the United States and Russia announced, over time, that they had removed all of their troops.  Each of the governments that they left behind claimed  sovereignty over all of Korea, and became involved in many border clashes. 

Civil War Begins: North Korea Invades South Korea
In June, 1950, North Korean troops invaded South Korea, to begin the Korean War.

Their civil war, soon involved the most powerful Communist and non-Communist nations in the world.

The Weak South vs the Strong North
Each Gains Powerful Allies
The division of Korea left the South weak economically and militarily.  It had very little industry and very few electric power plants.

The North Koreans had about 135,000 men in their army, many who had fought for China and Russia during World War II.  North Korea also had airplanes, artillery, and tanks.  The South Koreans, on the other hand, had an army of about 95,000 men, mostly whom were untrained and inexperienced.

However, with support of the Member States of the United Nations, including the United States who contributed over 700,000 troops, South Korea was greatly strengthened.  

China, on the other hand contributed a million additional troops to North Korea.

North Korea
Kim Il Sung
1912 - 1994
1st Leader of Soviet Union Controlled North Korea Government
At the end of World War II, Russia and the United States, split the Korean territory, once controlled by Japan.  Russia claimed dominion of Northern Korea, the United States claimed dominion of Southern Korea. 

Communist Russia established a new government in North Korea, and the United States, with the help of the United Nations, established a new government in South Korea. 

Kim Il Sung became the first leader of communist North Korea.

Under Kim Il Sung, the government took farmland from wealthy landowners and gave it to the farmworkers.  He also took control of most industries.

In the 1950's, Kim's government organized all of the country's farmland into collective farms.

Kim's government operated as a strict dictatorship.  It carefully limited freedom of speech and of the press.  It decided which citizens would receive a higher education.  Kim's government even decided where people would live and work.

In 1977, the government announced that Kim's eldest son, Kim Chong (aka Jong) Il, would become president after Kim's retirement or death.

Syrian Independence
Syria Becomes Involved in Arab-Israeli War
The Syrians aligned themselves with the other local Arab states that wanted to destroy the state of Israel.  
The Syrian army entered norther Palestine, but was gradually driven back to the Golan Heights by the Israelis.

It was during this period that many Syrian Jews, who faced growing persecution, fled Syria as part of Jewish exodus from Arab countries.

South Korea
Syngman Rhee
1875 - 1965
1st Leader of U.S. Controlled South Korean Government
After the United States occupied the South Korean territory after the defeat of Japan, at the end of World War II,  the United Nations intervened to supervise an election of a national assembly made up of the Korean people there.  The newly formed national assembly drafted a constitution and elected their first president, Syngman Rhee, who was 73 years old at the time.  

Rhee Faces a Korean Civil War
Two years into his presidency, South Korea was invaded by the newly formed government of North Korea and the Korean (Civil) War began.  Each side had powerful allies who provided millions of troops to each.  Communist China contributed close to a million troops to North Korea, and the United States contributed nearly a million troops, along with military contributions made by other UN Member States.  A truce was called in 1953.

Rhee Amends the Constitution to Ensure His Reelection
Because Rhee feared that the legislators would not reelect him in 1952, he submitted an amendment to the constitution that turned over election of the president to the people.  As a result, the voter reelected him twice, in 1952 and 1956.

Rhee Fixes Fourth Term Election
In 1960, Rhee ran for a fourth term, determined to keep control of the government, so he fixed the election to ensure victory.

Rhee Resigns Office Under Pressure of Political Protests
At the age of 85 Syngman Rhee resigned from the office of President, following nationwide demonstrations against the government, soon after his fraudulent reelection.

For several months following there was political upheaval and turmoil in South Korea.


NATO membership is open to any other European state in a position to further the principles of theTreaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area.
NATO: Alliance Among Europeans
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (aka North Atlantic Alliance), a political and military alliance formed by European governments with the issuance of the North Atlantic Treaty on April 4, 1949. Each member government (or member state) of NATO agrees to mutually defend any other member, if they are under armed attacked by any non-NATO member. There are 28 member states across North America and Europe. The combined military spending of all NATO members is 70% of total global spending on military defense.

NATO’s essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means. NATO

Over the cross of several years and world events, NATO has evolved from a pure political alliance, into a functional integrated military infrastructure among European nations. The first military intervention of NATO forces would not occur until events in Bosnia in 1992.

NATO Members

United Kingdom
United States



Czech Republic



Atlanta, Georgia
Jesse B. Blayton, Sr.
1st Black CPA in Georgia 1st Black Radio Station Owner
Jesse B. Blayton was an Atlanta businessman, accountant, and professor at Morehouse College.   In 1925, he was one of a group of 15 Black businessmen who founded the Mutual Federal Savings and Loan Association, of which later he would become president.  This organization made millions of dollars in loans to Black businesses over the years.

In 1928, he became the first Certified Public Accountant in Georgia.  He started his own accounting firm, which later evolved into a business college.  And in 1949, he overcame decades of obstacles faced by Black Americans throughout the period of segregation and purchased a white owned radio station losing money ---WERD.  He installed his son, Jesse Jr. as manager

WERD had only 1000 watts and was a “daytimer,” on the air only from sunrise to sunset.  But it became the home of some of black radio’s most famous radio announcers, most notably “Jockey Jack” Gibson.  Not only did WERD serve a 14 county area, providing news, music, and community service to Atlanta’s black population, but as Blayton had thought it would, the station made money

WERD played a mix of the popular black music of that era:  some jazz, rhythm-and-blues, and gospel. When black recording artists came to town, they would stop by the station to say hello and do an interview.  WERD also offered public service programs, educational shows, church services for shut-ins, radio plays, and news the black audience couldn’t get anywhere else.  The public admired the station’s announcers and regarded them as friends.

The WERD venture was so successful that in June of 1954, the Blaytons purchased a second AM radio station, KREL in Baytown TX, part of the Houston market.  During the turbulent times of the Civil Rights era, black radio stations like the Blaytons kept the community informed in a way that southern white stations often did not.  In fact, during the 60s, WERD’s offices were in the same building as the Southern Christian Leadership Council, and speakers from that group were able to communicate with a very large audience thanks to the Blaytons’ on-going commitment to racial equality.

In 1995, Jesse B. Blayton Sr., the first African-American to own a radio station, was posthumously inducted into Museum of Broadcasting’s Radio Hall of Fame.

Washington DC
Joseph McCarthy, U.S. Senator
Red Scare: McCarthyism 1950-1956 Anti-Communism
1950 marked a period in the United States, that lasted nearly ten years, where a campaign of fear against communism was mounted. During this period, often termed the “Red Scare”, or the “McCarthy Era”, many peoples character or patriotism was attacked.

Thousands of Americans were accused of being communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, educators, and union activists. Many people suffered loss of employment and/or destruction of their careers; some even suffered imprisonment.

J. Edgar Hover in 1961
Director of FBI

J. Edgar Hoover was one of the nation’s most fervent anti-communists, and one of the most powerful. Hoover maintained an extreme sense of Communist threat, and as head of the FBI, designed a security program for President Truman. The security standards applied caused thousands of government workers and other professionals to lose their jobs, primarily due to secret informants. Often, many people were not informed about what they were accused of and fired without further process.

Under Hoover, the FBI engaged in a number of illegal practices – burglaries, opening mail, wiretaps, planting forged documents, spreading rumors, leaking information, creating “blacklists”, and calling for IRS audits. One of Hoover’s primary targets was Martin Luther King.


Hazel Scott, Jazz Singer
1920 - 198
1st Black Woman with Own TV Show
Hazel Scott was a singer and a jazz and classical pianist. She was very prominent in the 1930s and 1940s. She often played herself in films. In 1950, she became the first Black woman to have her own TV show --- The Hazel Scott Show, which featured a variety of entertainment.

In 1949, she brought a lawsuit against the owners of Pasco, a Washington restaurant, when a waitress refused to serve her and a companion because “they were Negroes.” She publicly opposed racial segregation throughout her career.

To evade oppression in the United States, Scott moved to Paris in the late 1950s, and did not return to the United States until 1967.

J. Blaine "Jim" Blayton (1905-2002)
Virginia Physician and Civic Leader
Dr. James Blaine “Jim” Blayton lived with his family in Grove Community in James City County Virginia, and practiced medicine for more than 50 years.  Born in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), he earned his medical degree from Howard University in Washington D.C..His set up his medical practice to service Black residents who previously traveled about 30 miles for medical appointments and care.During the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, he served as a “New Deal” public health physician, and built a two-bed maternity hospital for the Black community.  And then in 1952, he opened a 14-bed hospital with an emergency room in Williamsburg to serve the Black community, who at that time were only allowed beds in the basement of “white” hospitals.  This hospital served as the primary health care facility until 1961.  During the course of this time, he also opened a sandwich and soda shop to serve young people shut out of other facilities by segregation.He was very civic minded, a member or on the board of many organizations.

Washington DC
Hydrogen Bomb Developed After U.S Drops Atomic Bombs on Japan

Harry S. Truman is most well-known as the President who approved the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan. He presided over the end of WW II, the start of the Cold War and the Korean War.

In his final State of the Union address before Congress, in 1953, he announced that the United States had completed development of a hydrogen bomb. This only three years after he announced his approval for the Atomic Energy Commission to continue its work on development of a super bomb and other forms of atomic energy weapons.

Scientist Urge Development
of Hydrogen Bomb
On September 23, 1949, President Truman announced to the American people, "We have evidence that within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the USSR."

At that time, some of the Los Alamos scientists, who had worked on developing the atomic bomb, feared that the USSR might already be working on a hydrogen bomb. Hungarian-born physicist Edward Teller and American-born business man, and Atomic Energy Commissioner (AEE) Lewis Strauss urged the rapid development of a weapon with an explosive force equivalent to 16 million tons of TNT, 800 times as much as the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945.

Edward Teller, US Physicist

Over serveral months, both men dedicated their efforts to bringing everyone in Washington around to their point of view. Strauss made his views very clear in a letter to President Truman on November 25th. "I believe that the United States must be as completely armed as any possible enemy. From this, it follows that I believe it unwise to renounce, unilaterally, any weapon which an enemy can reasonably be expected to possess. I recommend that the President direct the Atomic Energy Commission to proceed with the development of the thermonuclear bomb..."

Arms Race
In 1953, USSR scientists, tested their first hydrogen bomb, designed by Russian physicist Andrei Sakharov.


"Big Mama Thornton"
Willie Mae Thornton
1926 - 1984
Singer and Songwriter
In 1953, Big Mama Thornton became the first to record and publish “Hound Dog”, later made popular by Elvis Presley. She was a singer, songwriter, who taught herself how to play harmonica and drums. Her blues-style of music was heavily influenced by gospel music, witnessed while growing up in the home of a preacher. She became famous for her powerful voice, improvisational skills, numerous blues songs written, and for often dressing as a man in her performances. She was nominated for the Blues Music Award six times. In 1984, she was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame.


James Baldwin, Author
James Baldwin was an American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet, and social critic.

1953 marked the 1st Published

Novel by James Baldwin

North Korea
Nikita Khrushchev, 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Kim Il-sung, 1st Supreme Leader of North Korea
Soviet Union Aids North Korea in Acquiring Nuclear Technology
Soon after the end of the Korean War, the North Koreans reach out to the Soviet Union for help in developing nuclear weapons, but the Russians refuse their request.

However, the Soviets did concede to help them in developing a peaceful nuclear energy program by training their scientist and engineers in the "basic knowledge" of atomic energy.

Over the course of the next several years, the North Koreans sent delegations to the Soviet Union to study the use of atomic energy, and welcomed the Soviets into their country for the same.

Britian Topples Democratically Elected Government of Guyana

Guyana (full name is Republic of Guyana) is a tropical country situated on the northern coast of South America. It is the only country in South America where English is the official language. It is bordered by Venezuela on the west, Suriname on the east, Brazil on the south and the Atlantic Ocean on the north.

Guyana is about the size of Great Britain. The indigenous people of Guyana are the Amerindian, and the name Guyana is an Amerindian word meaning Land Of Many Waters.

Guyana has been called the "Country of Six People- Africans, Amerindians, Chinese, East Indians, Europeans and Portuguese. Guyana is notably famous for Kaieteur Falls.

Britian Topples
Elected Government

In October 1953, the democratically elected Government of Guyana (then known as British Guiana) was removed from power by the British Government which was at that time the colonial ruler.

The People's Progressive Party (PPP) had won a landslide victory in the April 1953 election, but the British Government suspended the British Guiana constitution and simultaneously deployed British troops in the country.

The Ministers of the Government, as well as the House of Assembly, were dismissed by the British Governor, who proceeded to appoint an interim Government made up of persons who were political opponents of the PPP. Most of these persons had been defeated as candidates in the April general election. In the aftermath, many leading members of the PPP were detained without trial while, under a state of emergency declared by the Governor, civil rights were suspended.

Some of the anti-PPP politicians, who had lost their privileges after the April election, spoke against the PPP saying that they were a "communist organisation" bent on "subverting the Government" and making it an ally of the Soviet Union. The British Government believed the untruths. Declassified documents show that the British Government was surprised by the PPP electoral victory, and that it was intent on removing them from power.

 Forbes Burnham (and his sister) 1953
Afro-Guyanese Political Leader
February 20, 1923 - August 6, 1985
Forbes Burnham (Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham) was an Afro-Guyanese, political leader. He was one of the founding leaders of the People's Progressive Party (PPP), which was launched January 1950. He served as Chairman of PPP and Minister of Education during the short-lived PPP government.
Cheddi Jagan
Indo-Guyanese Political Leader
March 22, 1918 - March 6, 1997

Cheddi Jagan was a labor leader, born of East Indian sugar plantation workers. He attended Northwestern University, and was also a founder of PPP, but Cheddi became head of PPP, Chief Minister of Guyana, and Premier of British Guiana.

Cheddi Jagan leaned more towards communism, while Burnham was more moderate. Forbes Burnham eventually split from PPP to form the People's Nationation Congress (in 1958). It was Jagan's goverment that was toppled by the British, after which more favor was shown to Burnham.

South Africa
Apartheid Education Policy: Bantu Education Act
The Parliament of South Africa enacts the Bantu Education Act (Act No. 47 of 1953; later renamed the Black Education Act, 1953). This law legalized serveral aspects of the apartheid system.

The primary purpose of this law was to enforce racially separated (but equal) educational facilities. However, with this act, the majority of the missionary schools closed down due to lack of funding. And, as a result, black and many non-white African citizens were channeled into the unskilled labor market.

The Minister of Natie Affairs at the time, the "Architect of Apartheid" Hendrik Verwoerd, state that:
"There is no place for [the Bantu] in the European community above the level of certain forms of labour ... What is the use of teaching the Bantu child mathematics when it cannot use it in practice?"

Education of black Africans was under direct control of the state. The National Party had the power to employ and train teachers as they saw fit. Black teachers salaries were extremely low, which resulted in a dramatic drop of trainee teachers. Only one third of the black teachers were qualified.

Education was mandatory for white children and the schools reserved for them were free. 30% of the black schools did not have electricity, 25% no running water and less than half had plumbing. The education for Blacks, Indians and Coloureds was not free. In the 70s, the per capita governmental spending on black education was one-tenth of the spending on white.

T.J. (Theodore Judson) Jemison
Minister / Civil Rights Leader
August 1, 1918 - November 15, 2013
Bus Boycott Baton Rouge 1953
Black-Owned Buses Illegal
On June 15, 1950, the city council of Scotlandville, the largest of many neighborhoods in the state capitol of Baton Rouge, Lousiana, outlawed the operation of all independent Black-owned public bus services. Instead, all routes which they serviced became the monopoly of the white-owned Baton Rouge Bus Company.

Racial Segregation on Buses
By 1953, Black Americans made up 70%-80% of the ridership of the Baton Rouge Bus Co, but were restricted to a limited numbers of seats in the designated "colored" section of the buses. Seats reserved for white passengers were required to remain unoccupied, even if no white passengers boarded the buses. On the other hand, if a white passenger chose to sit in the "colored" section, it was required that all Black passengers stand in honor.

Theodore Judson (T.J.) Jemison
T.J. Jemison was a minister of a large Baptist church in Baton Rouge. He came from a family of prominent ministers and church going women. He was born in Alabama and attended segregated schools there. He earned a bachelor's degree from Alabama State University, a historically black college in the state capital of Montgomery.

In 1945, at the age of 27, T.J. Jemison married Celestine Catlett of Virginia, his wife of 61 years. Celestine received her degree from Virginia Union University and was a high school English teacher for many years. Together, they had three children, (1) Diane Jemison Pollard, (2) Bettye Wagner and (3) Ted Jemison.

Celestine Catlett Jemison
Wife of T.J. Jemison
1919 - 2006

Civil Rights and City Ordinance 222
In February of 1953, at the age of 35, T.J. Jemison went before the Baton Rouge City Council to make an appeal on behalf of Black bus riders, who were forced to stand on buses filled with empty seats.

Within a couple of weeks of his appeal, the city council issued Ordinance 222, which established a first come- first served service policy for the bus system.

The provisions of Oridnance 222 state that whites were to board buses from the front, and Blacks at the back, and each were to take any empty seats available. However, there was no change, as bus drivers refused to comply with the ordinance.

In June of 1953, T.J. Jemison decided to push the issue, and bus drivers went on strike after two drivers were suspended for not complying with the ordinance.

During this time, the bus company was also making its appeals, and by the end of the strike, state Attorney General, Fred S. LeBlanc declared city Ordinance 222 unconstitutional, on the grounds that it violated the state's compulsory segregation laws.

Baton Rouge Bus Boycott
In response to the revocation of Ordinance 222, in June of 1953, Jemison and a group of churches formed the United Defense League, and by holding several mass meetings, organized a bus boycott. To support the boycott, they established a free-ride network to transport Blacks to and from their destinations. The official boycott lasted only two weeks, but the Black community was inspired to continue the boycott under their own efforts and refusal to ride buses.

Meanwhile, Jemison and other black leaders negotiated with the city council to eventually reinstate Ordinance 222.

A Civil Rights Legacy
T.J. Jemison was diligent in documenting the Baton Rouge experience, and his records and insight proved invaluable to the civil rights leaders that would follow.

T.J. Jemison and Martin Luther King


April 26 - July 20, 1954
Geneva, Switzerland
A World Community: 1954 Geneva Conference
When the armistice (formal agreement to stop fighting and negotiate) was signed, at the end of the Korean War, it included a deadline of three months (which was not met) “to settle through negotiation the questions of the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Korea, the peaceful settlement of the Korean question, …”

As follow-up to the Berlin Conference, held two months earlier, the Soviet Union, United States, France, the United Kingdom, and the People’s Republic of China convened as a group to settle outstanding issues regarding Korea and to discuss strategies for restoring peace in Indochina.


The 3-month long conference, held in Geneva Switzerland, ended without any declarations or proposals being adopted on Korean issues --- both North and South Korean representatives forced a standstill, insisting that each of their governments should be acknowledged as the only true, legal government.

The second primary concern at the conference was the long and bloody battle between Vietnamese nationalist forces, under the leadership of the communist Ho Chi Minh, and the French, who were intent on continuing colonial control over Vietnam. For nine years, the two sides had been hammering away at each other. By 1954, however, the French were tiring of the long and inclusive war that was draining both the national treasury and public patience. The United States had been supporting the French out of concern that a victory for Ho’s forces would be the first step in communist expansion throughout Southeast Asia. When America refused France’s requests for more direct intervention in the war, the French announced that they were including the Vietnam question in the agenda for the Geneva Conference.

In to this Indo-China issue, an agreement was reached called the Geneva Accords, which temporarily separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone and southern zone, governed by the Viet Minh and State of Vietnam, respectively.


Linda Brown Smith, Age 9
Brown v. Board of Education
Racial Segregation Banned In Public Schools By U.S. Supreme Court
In 1951, Linda Brown Smith was a 9 years old, 3rd grade student when her father started a class-action suit against the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. She had been denied admission to her local elementary school because she was Black. Combined with several other cases, her suit reached the Supreme Court.

Oliver Leon Brown
Welder, Minister, Civil Rights Leader
1903 – 1961

Oliver Brown, father of Linda Brown, was convinced by a childhood friend to join a lawsuit against the Board of Education. He was a welder by trade, and minister by profession. His daughter had to walk six blocks to catch a school bus to ride to her school, one mile away, because she was prohibited from attending an all white school seven blocks from her home.

Thurgood Marshall
1st Black Member of Supreme Court
(as Associate Justice)
1908 – 1993

The Supreme Court broke with long tradition and unanimously overrule the “separate but equal” doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson. The recently appointed Chief Justice Earl Warrant wrote an opinion that de jure (upheld by law) segregation in public schools violated the principle of equal protection under the law guaranteed by the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. And in response to arguments presented by NAACP lawyers led by Thurgood Marshall, the Supreme Court further stressed that the “badge of inferiority” stamped on minority children by segregation hindered their full development no matter how “equal” physical facilities might be.

The decision by the Supreme Court, however, did not succeed in fully desegregating public schools, but placed the law on the side of racial equality.


U.S. Nautilus 1st Nuclear-Powered Submarine
In 1951, based upon successful development of nuclear plants, the U.S. Congress authorized construction of a nuclear-powered submarine. The first nuclear submarine, the Nautilus, was launched by the United States in 1954. It could remain underwater for up to four months without resurfacing.

Previous to their development, submarines were slow and designed primarily to travel on the surface and dive on occasion, while the Nautilus was designed to remain underwater and only surface on occasion. Nuclear powered subs revolutionized Navy strategy and tactics. Men were now able to remain underwater for weeks at a time while crossing the globe, with a nearly limitless supply of power and means to destroy several large cities. Being able to travel the globe undetected meant that enemy military and commercial ships were exposed to submarine attack at any time and virtually any place on the Earth's oceans

Eventually, the technology was shared with Britain, while the French, Russian and Chinese proceeded along their own development paths. And, a few years after the Nautilus, an alarmed Soviet Union developed its own nuclear submarine capabilities.


W. Leonard Evans
1914 - 2007
Magazine Publisher & Radio Station Owner
W. Leonard Evans, Chicago advertiser, founded the first Black-owned radio network in the United States in 1954, a collection of about 40 radio stations, called the the National Negro Network (NNN).

His network featured a variety of different programming, including the broadcasting of Black sports and Black news, musical variety shows and soap operas. The soap opera, The Story of Ruby Valentine was very popular, and starred Juanita Hill, Ruby Dee and Terry Carter. Other programs included Black college concerts.

Some shows were produced by Calloway and Ethel Waters, while, sponsors Philip Morris and Pet Milk were on board from the beginning. The network drew up plans for several more series, but—with the TV era exploding—fell apart within a year due to inadequate capital.
Mr. Evans was also a publisher.  He formed "Tuesday Publications" and began distributing  a magazine aimed at Black readers, called "Tuesday", that came with many Sunday newspapers (Chicago Sun-Times and Chicago Tribune, along with 23 other newspapers) in the 1960s and 1970s.

George Shirley, Tenor Opera Singer
Detroit Schools Music Teacher
1st African American Lead: U.S. Army Chorus Metropolitan Opera
George Shirley began music lessons at the age of 6 and was vocalist at area churches in Detroit, Michigan.  He was also a baritone-horn player in a local band.  He received a bachelor degree from Wayne State University, in 1955.  He then spent a year in Wayne State’s graduate program, and taught school.

In 1956 Shirley was drafted into the military, after which he married his high school sweetheart, Gladys Lee Ishop.   Also while in the military, he auditioned for the U.S. Army Chorus, and became the first black member of the famed touring and performing ensemble.  He spent three years with Army Chorus, until his discharge.  

In 1960, at 26, he won a National Arts Club scholarship competition, and the following April, 1961, he became the first Black tenor to win the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions scholarship competition, for a $2,000 scholarship.  Shirley is also the first Black tenor and the second Black male to sing leading roles for the Metropolitan Opera.   He had a long professional career with the Metropolitan Opera, singing with them for 11 seasons.  
Throughout his career, he performed in the world’s most prestigious opera houses and has He spent a year in Wayne State’s graduate program, and taught schoolbeen accompanied by the most distinguishes orchestras in the world

In 1968, he received a Grammy Award for singing the role of “Ferrando” in the RCA recording of Mozart’s Cosi fan tutte.

Shirley currently serves as Director of the Vocal Arts Division and the University of Michigan.

North America
U.S. Targets Military and Civilian Populations
During the period of the Cold War, in June 1956, The SAC [Strategic Air Command] Atomic Weapons Requirements Study for 1959, was produced --- a comprehensive and detailed list of U.S. nuclear targets and target systems.  It was a plan for the strategic use of the weapons of mass destruction. 

The document was declassified on December 21, 2015 and published by the National Security Archive (nsarchive.org) on December 22, 2015.  

Dwight Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th U.S. President
World War II Five-Star Army General, Supreme Commander, Relied on Nuclear Weapons as Threat and Deterrent

In the interest of nation defense and protection of its NATO allies, the SAC study was undertaken to present a plan for the “systematic destruction” of urban-industrial targets in the Soviet bloc, including “population” in all cities, including Beijing, Moscow, Leningrad, East Berlin, and Warsaw.  The fact that the plan explicitly targeted civilian populations (as opposed to military installations with civilians nearby) was in direct conflict with international norms of the day, which prohibited attacks on civilian populations.

Curtis LeMay
Curtis LeMay
5th United States Air Force
Chief of Staff,
U.S. Air Force General
George Wallace 1968
VP Running Mate
Credited with designing and implementing strategic bombing campaign in World War II, Commander-in-chief of Strategic Air Command when the SAC study was prepared

The study identified over 1,100 airfields in the Soviet bloc and assigned a nuclear target to each, with the Soviet bomber force assigned the highest priority.  SAC’s top priority for destruction was Soviet “air power” because of the apparent immediate threat that Soviet bombers posed to the continental United States and to U.S. forces in Europe and East Asia. 

A second list was of urban-industrial areas identified for “systematic destruction”, with over 1,200 cities in the Soviet bloc listed, from East Germany to China, also with priority numbers assigned.  Moscow and Leningrad were priority one and two respectively.

According to the study, SAC would have targeted Air Power targets with bombs ranging from 1.7 to 9 megatons, exploding them at ground level.  A megaton equals about 70 times the destruction of a single Hiroshima bomb, and detonating the weapons on or close to the ground would maximize blast effects (reducing chances of retaliation), destroy the target and produce significant radiation fallout to be picked up by winds to be spread near and far, directly exposing civilians to radiation fallout, if not direct obliteration.

Althea Gibson
1927 - 2003
1st Black Professional Tennis Champion

Syrian Independence
United Arab Republic: Syria and Egypt Unification
Syria and Egypt for a short-lived political union, which ended when Syria seceded from the union in 1961.

The union was planned as the 1st step towards a larger pan-Arab state, and was created when a group of political and military leaders in Syria proposed a merger between the two states to Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser.

North Korea
Nuclear Explosion
United States vs North Korea
United States Targets North Korea Installs Nuclear Warheads in South Korea
Over the terms of eight U.S. Presidents, spanning three decades from 1959 to 1991, the United States had active nuclear warheads installed in South Korea, targeting North Korea.

The following U.S. Presidents were in office to oversee this direct, self-defensive threat against North Korea:
North Korea vs United States
Top (L-R): 34- Dwight D. Eisenhower, 35- John F. Kennedy, 36 - Lyndon B. Johnson, 37- Richard Nixon.  Bottom (L-R): 38 - Gerald Ford, 39 - Jimmy Carter, 40 - Ronald Regan, 41 - George H.W. Bush

North Korea
Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet Union
and Kim Il-sung, North Korea
Agreement on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy: Soviet Union and North Korea
In 1959, North Korea and the Soviet Union signed an agreement on the peaceful use of nuclear energy that included a provision for Soviet help to establish a nuclear research complex in Yongbyon and supply them with a research reactor.

Research and Training Facilities
In the early 1960s, North Korea received the Soviet IRT-200 nuclear research reactor and the Soviet Union provided extensive technical assistance to North Korea in constructing the Yongbyon Nuclear Research Center and associated facilities. North Korea used this small research reactor to produce radioisotopes and to train personnel.

Kim Il Sung in Complete Control
Although the cabinet and the Academy of Sciences were given operational and administrative oversight of the nuclear facilities, then-North Korean leader Kim Il Sung retained ultimate control of the nuclear program and all decisions associated with weapons development.

Despite the early assistance from Moscow (and minor assistance from China), the North Korea nuclear program developed largely without significant foreign assistance.

Relations Deteriorate with China
After China completed its first nuclear test in October 1964, Kim Il Sung asked China to share its nuclear weapon technology, but Chinese leader Mao Zedong refused. Shortly thereafer, North Korean relations with China began to deteriorate.

Patrice Lumumba
1st Democratically Elected
Leader of the Congo
Congo Achieves Independence from Belgium's Colonial Rule
Patrice Lumumba was the founder of the MNC (Mouvement Nactional Congolais) party that worked and campaigned for independence from Belgium’s colonial rule.

Congolese Receive Independence
In 1960, the Congolese finally received their independence and Lumumba was elected leader.  However, it was not a smooth transition and there was little stability.  Instead, a great political upheaval and a climate of civil war ensued.  The erupting conflicts were so tragic that nearly 100,000 people were killed within 5 years of Congo independence.

In the first week following, mutiny broke out in the army, and violence erupted between black and white civilians.   Belgium was forced to send troops to protect fleeing whites.

Moise Kapenda Tshombe
1919 – 1965
President of Katanga
Organized Succession

Soviets and Britain Intervene in Civil War
Katanga and South Kasai seceded, with Belgian support.  And because of the continued unrest, the United Nations deployed peacekeepers, but the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld refused to use these troops to help the central government in Léopoldville fight the secessionists.  This lack of support led Lumumba to solicit support from the Soviet Union to fight against the secessionist.   The Soviet Union responded by promptly sending military advisors and other support.
Joseph Kasa-Vubu
1910 – 1969
President of the Congo 
From 1960 – 1965
After Soviet involvement, a coup was mounted by the commander of the army, Mobutu, who then expelled the Soviet advisors and deposed Lumumba from office, imprisoning him.  The following year is was executed.

Resurgence of the Nationalist Movement
after Lumumba's Execution
Lumumba supporters started a rival government, and even though aided by the Soviets, were crushed.  However, the UN was more persistent and sent more troops to defeat the secessionist movements in Katanga and South Kasai by 1963.

United States and Belgium
Rid the Congo of  Soviet Communist
However, before full control could be established, Maoist-inspired militants (Simbas) rose up in the east and took control of a significant amount of territory and claimed a communist “People’s Republic of the Congo” in Stanleyville.  These Simbas were defeated by Belgium and United States troops.
Mobutu Sese Seko
1930 - 1997
Military Commander
Staged Coup to Become
Dictator of the Congo

Mobutu Becomes Dictator
of the Congo after 2nd Coup
A new election was held in 1965, but a new political stalemate developed between Tshombe and Kasa-Vubu.  In response, once again the military commander, Mobutu mounted a second coup, but took personal control this time.  Mobutu then transformed the Congo (Zaire as of 1971) into dictatorship, ruling for over 25 years.

Niger Traditional Chief
Niger Achieves Complete Independence from France
Although the Republic of Niger was created in 1958, the nation did not receive its complete and formal independance from France until August 3, 1960.

North Korea
Kim Il-sung, North Korea Leader
North Korea Expands Nuclear Energy Educational Institutions
In the late 1960s, North Korea expanded its educational and research institutions to support a nuclear program for both civilian and military applications with the opening of the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center.

Syrian Independence: Decade #2
Ba'ath Party Seizes Power in Syria March 8th Revolution
The military committee of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party planned a coup and seized power in Syria.

The Ba'ath Party was able to mobilize Syria's ethnic minorities, who were often underprivileged. The Alawits, the Druzes and the Isma'ilis, for instance, were ethnic groups with low social class who began to embrace a radical form of Arab nationalism, found in the ideology of the Ba'ath Party.

The growth of a new middle class in Syria fueled discontent and they became radicalized, as the traditional elite dominated the largest sectors of the economy and created the most wealth for themselves.

Washington D.C.
U.S. Government Establishes
National Health Insurance
for Senior Citizens
Medicare is national health insurance for U.S. senior citizens and has been in operation for over 50 years.  In more recent years, benefits have expanded to include young people with permanent disabilities as being eligible to receive Medicare services.

The name "Medicare" was originally given to a program providing medical care for families of individuals serving in the military as part of the Dependents' Medical Care Act, which was passed in 1956.  

Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th President of the United States

In January 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower held the first White House Conference on Aging, in which creating a health care program for social security beneficiaries was proposed.

Lyndon B. Johnson
36th President of the United States
Signs Medicare into Law

In the period of the early 1960s, only 60% of those over the age of 65 had health insurance, with coverage often unavailable or unaffordable, as older adults paid more than 3Xs as much for health insurance as younger people.

In 1965, under the leadership of President Lyndon Johnson, Congress passed the Medicare bill under Title XVII of the Social Security Act to provide health insurance to people age 65 and older, regardless of income or medical history.  On July 30, 1965, President Johnson signed the bill into law.

Desegregation in Health Care Prompted by Medicare
Based upon Medicare law, health care providers were required to practice desegregation in order to receive payments.  This requirement resulted in the desegregation of thousands of waiting rooms, hospital floors, and physician practices.

President George W. Bush signs H.R. 1, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003, at Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., December 8, 2003.

Mitch McConnell
5-Term (34 Years)
U.S. Senator, Kentucky

In October 2018, Senate Majority Leader, Mitch McConnell blamed Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security for the soaring, nearly $800 billion, federal deficit, with plans to cut massive dollars from these program.

After a Republican-backed tax cut for wealthy Americans, led by President Donald Trump and McConnell, in 2017, the deficit grew by a whopping 17% from the previous years.

Syrian Independence: Decade #3: Rise of al-Assad
Civilian Ba'ath Lose Power in Internal Military Coup Led by Salah Jadid
Salah Jadid was a Syrian general and political figure in the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party who stage a military coup against civilian Syrian leadership.  

Although he played in the background, he had many men allied to him in some of the top Syrian government and military posts.

After the coup, Hafez al-Assad was appointed defense minister.  Salah Jadid and Hafez al-Assad maintained highly public policy differences.  While Jadid retained allegiance of most of the civilian Ba'ath, Assad gradually asserted control over the military wing of the party.


Maulana Karenga
Professor, Activist, Author
Creator of Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa: 1st Pan-African Holiday Created
Maulana Karenga was a major figure in the Black Power movement of the 1960s and 1970s, and in 1965 co-founded US, a black nationalist organization, with Hakim Jamal.

Early Life
Karenga was born in Parsonsburg, Maryland, the 14th child and 7th son in his family.  His father was a tenant farmer and Baptist minister, who hired out his family to work as sharecroppers.

College Years
At the age of 18 years, he moved to Los Angeles to live with his older brother, who was a teacher, and immediately enrolled in Los Angeles City College.  As a young man, he became active with the civil rights organizations CORE and SNCC, and developed an interest in African studies.  He became the first African student elected president of Los Angeles City College.

Earns BA and MA Degrees
and Changes Name
After earning his associate degree, he earned BA and MA degrees, from UCLA, in political science.  During the course of his education, he studied Swahili, Arabic, and other African-related subjects.  During this period, he took the name Karenga (Swahili for “keeper of tradition”) and the title Maulani (Swahili-Arabic for “master teacher”).

While pursuing his PhD. at UCLA, he taught African culture classes for local African community members and joined a study group called the Circle of Seven.

1960s Activism
After the Watts Riots, Karenga and the Circle of Seven established a community organization called US (meaning “Us black people”).  Karenga cited Malcom X’s Afro-American Unity program as an influence on the US organization’s work.  The US organization joined in several community revival programs.

Community Self-Defense
As racial disturbances spread across the country, Karenga appeared at a series of Black Power Conferences, joining other groups in urging establishment of a separate political structure for Africans.  US developed a youth component with para-military aspects called the Simba Wachanga, which advocated and practiced community self-defense and service to the masses.

1966 Kwanzaa Created
Karenga created Kwanzaa in 1966 to be the first Pan-African holiday.  He said Kwanzaa was created to “give [Africans] an opportunity to celebrate themselves and their history, rather than simply imitate the practice of the dominant society.”

Nguzo Saba:
Seven Principles of
African Heritage
The rituals of the holiday promote African traditions and Nguzo Saba, the seven principles of African Heritage.

Strive for and maintain unity in the family, community, nation, and race.

Define ourselves, name ourselves, create for ourselves, and speak for ourselves.

Collective Work & Responsibility
Build and maintain our community together and make our brother's and sister's problems our problems and solve them together.

Cooperative Economics
Build and maintain our own stores, shops and other businesses and profit from them together.

Make our collective vocation the building and developing of our community in order to restore our people to their traditional greatness.

Always do as much as we can, in the way that we can, in order to leave our community more beautiful and beneficial than we inherited it.

Believe with all our heart in our people, our parents, our teachers, our leaders and the righteousness and victory of our struggle.


San Francisco Tenderloin District
Transgender Pride Flag
Compton's Cafeteria Riot: 1st Transgender Riot in U.S. History
In 1966, cross-dressing was illegal, and unwelcome in gay bars,  Compton’s Cafeteria in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco was one of the few places where transgender people could congregate publicly.   In addition, the cafeteria was open all hours.

At some point, however, Compton’s Cafeteria staff, began to calling the police to crack down on transgender and transsexual individuals, who would frequent the restaurant.  In response to police arrests, the transgender and transsexual community launched an unsuccessful picket of Compton’s Cafeteria.

One another night, Compton’s staff called police when some transgender customer began acting loud and out of hand, and when an officer attempted to arrest one of the transgender women, she threw her coffee in his face.  At that point, the riot began, with dishes and furniture being thrown, and the restaurant’s plate-glass windows smashed.  Reinforcements were called and the fighting spilled into the street, where structures were burned and a police car destroyed.

The next night, more transgender people, and Tenderloin street people, and other members of the LGBTcommunity joined in a picket of the cafeteria, which would not allow transgender people back in. The demonstration ended with the newly installed plate-glass windows being smashed again.

The riot marked a turning point in the local LGBT movement, as in its aftermath, a network of transgender social, psychological, and medical support services was established, which culminated in 1968 with the creation of the National Transsexual Counseling Unit [NTCU], the first such peer-run support and advocacy organization in the world.

Also following the riot, transgender and transsexual individuals were allowed to live their lives more freely and openly because police brutality towards them subsided.  For example, they had much less fear of being heckled by the police department for dressing how they chose to during the daytime.


1st President of Botswana
Prince Seretse and Ruth Williams Khama
U.S. Supreme Court: Interracial Marriage a Legal Right
The United States Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, invalidates laws prohibiting interracial marriage as unconstitutional, overturning Pace v Alabama (1883).

Syrian Independence: Decade #3: Rise of al-Assad
Israeli Armed Forces Seize the Golan Heights from Syria
Between June 5th and June 10th, 1967, Israel engaged in a war with Egypt, Jordan and Syria, at the end of which, Israel had gained control of the Golan Heights from Syria. 

In the attack, much of Syria's air force was destroyed.

Cleveland, Ohio
Carl Stokes, Politician
1927 - 1996
1st Black Mayor of Major City
Carl Stokes was elected on November 7, 1967 and took office on January 1, 1968.

Stokes defeated Seth Taft, the grandson of former President William Howard Taft, with a 50.5% margin. At the time of the his election, Cleveland was a majority white city with a 37% black population.

As mayor, Stokes opened city hall jobs to blacks and women. He was known as a strong administrator, and is remembered for his vision and motivation. Stokes feuded with City Council and the Police Department for most of his tenure.

After his mayoral administration, Stokes lectured to colleges around the country. In 1972, he became the first black anchorman in New York City when he took a job with television station WNBC-TV.

Richard G. Hatcher
Richard G. Hatcher with
V.P. Hubert H. Humphrey, 1967

Richard G. Hatcher was actually the first Black candidate elected mayor of a U.S. city larger than 100,000 people and the first Black mayor in the state of Indiana, but Carl Stokes, elected to office days after him, was was sworn into office prior to Hatcher's inauguration, although Stokes, claiming the title of "The First".


Della Reese
1931 - 2017
Gospel, Jazz, R&B Singer
Actress, TV Host, Minister
1st Black Woman to Host Syndicated Talk Show in the U.S.
In 1969, Della Reese began hosting a syndicated talk show, The Della Reese Show, to become the first African American woman to host a TV show in America.  Her show lasted on air for one year.

She was born in 1931, as Delloreese Early, to a Cherokee mother and a black father.  At the age of 13 years, she began touring with famed gospel singer, Mahalia Jackson.  After leaving the gospel tour, five years later, at the age of 18, she began an independent career as a gospel, jazz, and R&B artist.

Della Reese had a big, boisterous personality and was a natural conversationalist.  In 1969, while nearing the age of 40 years, and after over two decades in the entertainment filed, she was offered the opportunity to host her own syndicated talk show.  She enjoyed successful ratings for several months, even in the most racist southern states, but based upon her own account, she was terminated because her "gums were too dark", instead of pink, and America could not adjust to her wide smile.

In 1979, surviving an aneurysm that burst in her brain while appearing on the Tonight Show, Della began studying spirtuality and eventually became an ordained minister, to found the nondemoninational Christian church called "Understanding Principles for Better Living" (or UP), where she preached every Sunday.  During the course of her ministry, she also authored several books on spirituality, including  "Metaphysically Speaking" and "Angels Along the Way".

In her senior years, Della Reese became more famously known for her role as Tess, the wise angel, on the long-running TV show, "Touched by an Angel".

Della Reese remained active and involved throughout her long life.  She died at the age of 86 in November 2017.

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Becomes Effective
The United Nations sponsored an organization called Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament to negotiate an international treaty to:
  • prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology
  • promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy
  • further the goal of achieving complete nuclear disarmament.
On March 5, 1970, two years after the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons opened for signature, it was entered into force. 

More countries have adhered to the NPT than any other arms limitation and disarmament agreement.

UN Member Nations that
Never Accepted the Treaty

  1. India
  2. Israel
  3. Pakistan
  4. South Sudan (founded in 2011)
The 5 Nations Allowed to Posses Nuclear Weapons Under the Treaty
The following five nations are termed Nuclear-Weapon-States  and are also the permanent members of the UN Security Council. They are the only sovereign nations allowed to develop and posses nuclear weapons, by virtue of the NPT, based on the rationale that they  had already built and tested nuclear explosives prior to 1967.
North Korea vs United States
All other nations, termed non-nuclear-weapons states, agree never to acquire nuclear weapons.  And, in exchange for their compliance with total nuclear disarmament and refraining from pursuing the development of nuclear technology, the nuclear-weapon states promised that they would share in the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology.

Syrian Independence: Decade #3: The al-Assad Regime
Defense Minister
Hafez al-Assad
Declares Himself President
after Military Coup
In 1969, while Salad Jadid was still in power, Hafez al-Assad, Defense Minister, purged several Jadid loyalists.

In 1970, when Jadid sent Syrian-controlled Palestinian troops into Jordan to help the PLO, al-Assad took exception to the move.

Whe the Soviets sent an ambassador to mediate the power struggle between Jadid (whom they supported) and al-Assad, al-Assad was angered. 

Later in the year, Jadid attempted to fire al-Assad and his supporters. This in turn caused al-Assad to launch a coup against Jadid.

Jadid was arrested on November 13, 1970, and was confined to prison until his death in 1993.

Hafez al-Assad declared himself President of Syria in 1971.

Global Economy
Britton Woods System: Actions of the U.S. Changes Global Economy
Gold No Longer the
Basis of the Value of Dollar

Without consulting, or advising, the other nations, the United States pulled out of the Bretton Woods Accord, abandoning the Gold Exchange Standard, whereby the value of the dollar is pegged to the price of gold.   With this, the value of the dollar was left to float, based upon the rise and fall of market demand.  This was done despite the fact that all other currencies were pegged to the value of the dollar.

Dollar Depreciates in Value

Richard M. Nixon
1913 - 1994
37th President of the United States
(1969 - 1974)
Shortly after, Britain followed by floating the pound sterling.  Then, the other industrialized nations followed suit with their respective currencies.  And then, anticipating wild fluctuations in currency values, each nation released a greater volume of their currencies into the market. And, as a result of this action, the dollar and all the other currencies depreciated in value.  
Floating Dollar Impacts
Increase in Oil Prices
Because oil was priced in dollars, the income of oil producers decreased, at which point they took action.  In September 1971, OPEC announced that they would no longer price oil in terms of the dollar, but on a fixed amount of gold.
In the twenty years from 1947 to 1967, the dollar price of oil had risen by less than 2% per year, and the price remained pretty stable after that time.   While the price of oil rose to 4 times the price in a matter of months.
Britton Woods System: International Economic System
The Britton Woods System was a full-feature inter-nation economic system, detailing the rules for commercial and financial relations, intended to prevent competitive devaluation of currencies, and  agreed upon by the world’s major industrial nations. Once feature was tenet of the system was that each country was obligated to adopt a monetary policy that maintained the exchange rate, by tying its currency to gold.  


OPEC Oil Embargo
OPEC was organized in 1960 to resist pressure by the "Seven Sisters" (seven large, Western oil companies) to reduce oil prices. OPEC was formed by the following countries:
  • Iran
  • Iraq 
  • Kuwait 
  • Libya 
  • Qatar 
  • Saudi Arabia  
  • United Arab Emirates 
  • Venezuela 
  • Indonesia 
  • Nigeria 
  • Ecuador
1970 U.S. Oil Production Peaks
Foreign Oil Dependence
In 1970, the United States reached its maximum rate of oil production at 9.6 million barrels per day.  The petroleum production of most other nations peaked within this same period, either five years before or after.  
After this peak, oil production went into a  decline and both the United States and Germany found themselves increasing dependent on foreign suppliers for meeting energy demands.

1973 OPEC Oil Embargo
In 1973, OPEC was already in the process of responding to the 1971 international change in currency standards that devalued the dollar, and cut substantially into the oil revenue, who value was based on the value of the dollar.  In order to compensate for their loss, they demanded that foreign oil corporations increase prices and increase the profits of local subsidiaries. 

Then in October 1973,  during the course of the Arab-Israeli War, and in response to the United States supplying Israel with arms, OPEC, whose members, which also included Egypt, Syria, and Tunisia, proclaimed an oil embargo, or ban on trading, against the following nations:
  • Canada
  • Japan
  • Netherlands
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
Nations Distance Themselves
from U.S. Foreign Policy
European nations and Japan sought to disassociate themselves from United States foreign policy in the Middle East.
The 6-month embargo had many short-term and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy, one being the price of oil rising from $3/barrel to $12/barrel.  

Yom Kippur War
aka  Ramadan War
aka 1973 Arab–Israeli War
Early in 1973, Syria was joined by Egypt in a war with Israel, and in the aftermath of them launching a  surprise military campaign to regain territories they had lost in the Six-Day War of June, 1967, the United States supplied Israel with additional arms.

Terms of the Embargo:
Peace Between Egypt, Syria & Israel
Arab oil producers linked any future policy changes to peace being obtained between Israel, Egypt, and Syria.  
Richard M. Nixon
37th President of the United States
To address this, the Nixon Administration initiated negotiations.  They arranged for Israel to pull back from the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights.  And by January 18, 1974, US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had negotiated an Israeli troop withdrawal from parts of the Sinai Peninsula.  
The promise of a negotiated settlement between Israel and Syria was enough to convince Arab oil producers to lift the embargo in March 1974.

In the aftermath, those countries targeted by the embargo, initiated a wide variety of policies to restrain their future dependency on Arab oil.

Leonard Matlovich
1943 - 1988
1st Openly Gay Service Member
Leonard Matlovich,  of Croatian decent, was a Vietname War veteran, recipient of the Purple Heart and the Bronze Star, and a race relations instructor.   In 1975, he publicly  “came out of the closet”, in protest of the military ban on gays.

Planned Activism
Sometime in 1974, Matlovich contacted gay activist, Frank Kameny.  Kameny had been looking for a gay service member, with a perfect record, to create a test case to challenge the military’s ban on gays.  After several months of discussion with Kameny and ACLU attorney David Addlestone, a plan was formulated that resulted in him hand-delivering a letter to his commanding officer.
Nationwide Notoriety
His fight to stay in the United States Air Force resulted in newspaper and magazine articles throughout the country, and numerous television interviews.  A television movie was made of his story, and he was the first named, openly gay person to appear on the cover of a U.S. news magazine.  He became a symbol for thousands of gay and lesbian service members and gay people generally.
He was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in 1986, and was among the first to receive AZT treatments.  In 1987, he announced on “Good Morning America” that he had contracted HIV.
 Matlovich’s tombstone does not bear his name, but is a memorial to all gay veterans.
Weakened, he made his last public speech as an activist in May 1988, dying one month later, just before his 45th birthday.

Egyptian President Sadat
Appoints General Mubarak
as Vice President of Egypt
Along with swearing in a Cabinet, Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat appointed Lieutenant General Husni Mubarak, the air force commander, as Vice President.  

The 47 year old general directed the Egyptian Air Force during the war of October, 1973.

General Husni Mubarak

General Mubarak replaced Hussein Shafei, who as a colonel in 1952 was one of the Free Officers under Gamal Abdel Nasser, who overthrew King Farouk. Except for Mr. Sadat, no member of the group remains active in the Government.

North Korea
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat, President of Egypt and Kim Il-sung, Supreme Leader of North Korea
North Korea Begins Ballistic Missile Program
In the late 1970s, around 1976, Egypt sent North Korea several Soviet Scud-type missiles, which North Korean engineers began to reverse engineer to begin their ballistic missile program.

North Korea Kim Il-sung
Over the next several years, the North Koreans also began uranium mining operations at various locations.

North Korea
Kim Il-sung, North Korea Leader
North Korea Makes
Strides in Developing
Nuclear Weaponry
Beginning in the 1980s, North Korea began making significant strides in the development of nuclear weaponry.

In 1980 they built a factory at Yongbyon to refine yellowcake, used in the preparation of uranium fuel for nuclear reactors.

In 1984 they completed construction of a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated nuclear reactor for plutonium production, and began construction of a second nuclear reactor.

Egyptian President Anwar Sadat
Egyptian President
Jails 1000s of Opponents
Activists, Politicians, Journalists
Following a failed military coup in June 1981, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat ordered a major crackdown, culminating in the arrest of 1,600 opponents, mostly Muslim fundamentalists and extremists, for “sectarian sedition” --- inciting rebellion against his regime.  Some Coptic Christian priests also were arrested and the community's Pope, Shenuda III, was stripped of power and advised to stay at his remote desert monastery.  

In the days following, after being rudely challenged by the press on his position, an ABC news reporter was expelled and the video footage of a British journalist critical of the Sadat regime was confiscated at the Cairo airpot.

Egypt vs Soviet Union
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (LEFT) and Leonid Brezhnev, Leader of the Soviet Union (RIGHT)
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat Expels Soviets from Egypt
Blaming Soviet diplomats for instigating unrest, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat expelled hundreds of representatives of the Soviet Union from Egypt.

Along with expelling the Soviet Ambassador Vladimir Polyakov, six Soviet diplomats, two Soviet journalists,  and a Hungarian diplomat were expelled and requested to be out of the country within 48 hours. 

In addition, the contracts of more than 1,000 Soviet technical advisers who helped set up and run Egypt's heavy industry were asked to leave the country within a week..

Sadat took these actions after Egyptian military intelligence uncovered three plots involving Soviet and Hungarian diplomats aimed at toppling the regime.  Reports also indicated that the Soviets had played an "outstanding role instigating and escalating Muslim-Christian strife" in Egypt.

President Anwar Sadat of Egypt at military parade immediately prior to his assassination
Egyptian President
Anwar Sadat Assassinated
Anwar Sadat, the President of Egypt, was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Operation Badr, during which the Egyptian Army had crossed the Suez Canal and taken back a small part of the Sinai Peninsula from Israel at the beginning of the Yom Kippur War. 

Although Sadat could claim many enemies, members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad were held accountable for the murder.

Sadat was protected by four layers of security and eight bodyguards, and the army parade should have been safe due to ammunition-seizure rules.  

The Murder
As Egyptian Air Force Mirage jets flew overhead, distracting the crowd, Egyptian Army soldiers and troop trucks towing artillery paraded by.

One truck contained the assassination squad, led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli. As it passed the tribune, Islambouli forced the driver at gunpoint to stop. From there, the assassins dismounted and Islambouli approached Sadat with three hand grenades concealed under his helmet.

Sadat stood to receive his salute (Anwar's nephew Talaat El Sadat later said, "The president thought the killers were part of the show when they approached the stands firing, so he stood saluting them"), whereupon Islambouli threw all his grenades at Sadat, only one of which exploded (but fell short), and additional assassins rose from the truck, indiscriminately firing AK-47 assault rifles into the stands until they had exhausted their ammunition and then attempted to flee.

Just prior to the assassination, Vice President Mubarak views the parade at the right hand of President Sadat

Sadat and ten others were killed outright or suffered fatal wounds.   Hosni Mubarak, Vice President of Egypt and several others were wounded in the attack, which lasted about two minutes.

Syria: Assad Regime
First War of Lebanon: Israel Invades Lebanon and Begins 8-Year Occupation Until Driven Out by Hezbollah
Israel invaded Lebanon to occupy a strip of South Lebanon.  Funded by Iran to combat Israel's occupation, the group Hezbollah is formed and engages in guerilla warfare against Israel.

The military strength of Hezbollah continued to grow, forcing Israel to withdraw on May 24, 2000.

Paul Biya
2nd President of Cameroon
Biya Succeeds 1st President Ahidjo
Biya has been President of Cameroon since 1982, after the surprise resignation of President Ahidjo.   He previously served as Secretary-General of the Presidency from 1968 to 1975 and then as Prime Minister of Cameroon from 1975 to 1982. 
 Ahmadou Ahidjo
1924 - 1989
1st President of Cameroon
(1960 - 1982)
Rift Between Biya and
Former President Develops
Leading to Exile in France
Because Biya is a Christian from southern Cameroon, it was considered surprising that he was chosen by Ahidjo, a Muslim from the north, as his successor. After Biya became President, Ahidjo initially remained head of the ruling Cameroon National Union (CNU).  During the first months after Biya's succession, he continued to show loyalty to Ahidjo, and Ahidjo continued to show support for Biya, but in 1983 a deep rift developed between the two. Ahidjo went into exile in France, and from there he publicly accused Biya of abuse of power and paranoia about plots against him. 

Biya Advances the Election and
Wins by 99.9%, as Sole Candidate
In November 1983, Biya announced that the next presidential election would be held on 14 January 1984; it had been previously scheduled for 1985. He was the sole candidate in this election and won 99.98% of the vote.  He was also re-elected as President of Cameroon on 24 April 1988.[2]

Overthrow of Biya Attempted
In February 1984, Ahidjo was put on trial in absentia for alleged involvement in a 1983 coup plot, along with two others; they were sentenced to death, although Biya commuted their sentences to life in prison, a gesture seen by many as a sign of weakness.  Biya survived a military coup attempt on 6 April 1984.  Northern Muslims were the primary participants in this coup attempt, which was seen by many as an attempt to restore that group's supremacy.   Ahidjo was widely believed to have orchestrated the coup attempt. 
Winning Election after Election
Biya Has Terms Limits Removed
Biya won another seven-year term in the 11 October 2004 presidential election, officially taking 70.92 percent of the vote, although the opposition alleged widespread fraud.

After being re-elected in 2004, Biya was barred by a two-term limit in the 1996 Constitution from running for President again in 2011, but he sought to revise this to allow him to run again. The proposed removal of term limits was among the grievances expressed during violent protests in late February 2008. Nevertheless, on 10 April 2008, the National Assembly voted to change the Constitution to remove term limits. 
In the October 2011 presidential election, Biya secured a sixth term in office, polling 77.9% of votes cast.  Biya's opponents alleged wide-scale fraud in the election and procedural irregularities were noted by the French and US governments.
 Jeanne-Irène Biya
1935 - 1992
1st Wife of Paul Biya
(No Children)
Chantal Biya
1971 - Present
1st Lady of Cameroon
(1994 - Present)
Paul and Chantal Biya have two children, Anastasia Brenda Biya Eyenga, and Paul Biya, Jr.  In addition, Paul Biya's eldest son, from a previous relationship, is Franck Biya.

North Korea
North Korea Joins the Non-Prolifiration Treaty
North Korea signs the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) but is not immediately compliant with the safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Under Article III of the NPT, North Korea has 18 months to conclude such an arrangement.

In the years that follow, North Korea stalls compliance, determining that it will not comply unless the United States withdraws its nuclear weapons from South Korea. 

Oprah Gail Winfrey
The Oprah Winfrey Show 1986
1st Black Woman to Host Nationally Syndicated Talk Show and North America's Only Black Billionaire
Oprah Winfrey's talk show, "The Oprah Winfrey Show", was the highest-rated program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011.

North Korea
North Korea Signs Biological and Toxic Weapons Agreement
North Korea signs the Geneva Protocol and agreed to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC).

North Korea
Mikhail Gorbachev, Last Leader of Soviet Union and Kim Jong-Il, Supreme Leader North Korea
North Korea Begins to Lose Long-Standing Support from USSR
As Soviet control of the communist governments begins to weaken, the security guarantees and economic support provided North Korea for nearly 45 years begin to erode.

North Korea
George H.W. Bush, 41st U.S. President and
Kim Il-sung, 1st Supreme Leader of North Korea
U.S. Attempts to Goad North Korea into Compliance with NPT
The United States makes an offer of normalized diplomatic relations with North Korea, in exchange for their compliance with the NPT.

Although North Korea had signed the NPT in 1985, it had not yet allowed inspections of its nuclear facilities, and U.S. satellite surveillance indicated that they were in the early stages of building a nuclear bomb.

Soviet Union
Mikhail Gorbachev
General Secretary of the Communist Party
Soviet Union Dissolved: Signaling End of Cold War
On December 25, 1991, the President of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, resigned from office and declared his office extinct, handing over powers to Russian President Boris Yeltsin.  The Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin and replaced with the pre-revolution Russian Flag.

Previously, from August to December, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. The week before the union's formal dissolution, 11 republics – all except the Baltic states andGeorgia – signed the Alma-Ata Protocol formally establishing the CIS and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.
1st Elected President of Russia 
The dissolution of the USSR (Russian: Распад СССР) also signaled the end of theCold War.
The Revolutions of 1989 and the end of the Soviet Union led to the end of decades-long hostility between North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact, the defining feature of the Cold War.


Mae Carol Jemison
1st Black Woman to Travel in Outer Space
After the flight of Sally Ride in 1983, Jemison felt the astronaut program had opened up, so she applied.  
Jemison was turned down on her first application to NASA, but in 1987 she was accepted on her second application. "I got a call saying 'Are you still interested?' and I said 'Yeah'," recalls Jemison.
Jemison flew her only space mission from September 12 to 20, 1992, as a Mission Specialist on STS-47. "… It was such a significant moment because since I was a little girl I had always assumed I would go into space," Jemison added.

Mae Jemison was born in Decatur, Alabama, the youngest child of Charlie Jemison and Dorothy Green. Her father was a maintenance supervisor for a charity organization, and her mother worked most of her career as an elementary school teacher of English and math at the Beethoven School in Chicago.  
According to a DNA analysis, she descended from people of Cameroon, Nigeria, Sierra Leone,Ghana, Senegal, and East Asia.
The family moved to Chicago, Illinois, when Jemison was three years old, to take advantage of better educational opportunities there. 
Jemison would not let anyone dissuade her from pursuing a career in science. "In kindergarten, my teacher asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up, and I told her a scientist," Jemison says. "She said, 'Don't you mean a nurse?' Now, there's nothing wrong with being a nurse, but that's not what I wanted to be.
Jemison says she was inspired by Martin Luther King Jr.; "… when I think of Martin Luther King, I think of attitude, audacity, and bravery.”  Jemison thinks the civil rights movement was all about breaking down the barriers to human potential. "The best way to make dreams come true is to wake up."
Jemison loved science growing up but she also loved dancing.   "I love dancing! I took all kinds of dance — African dancing, ballet, jazz, modern — even Japanese dancing. I wanted to become a professional dancer," said Jemison.  "I think that people sometimes limit themselves and so rob themselves of the opportunity to realize their dreams. For me, I love the sciences and I also love the arts," says Jemison."
Later during her senior year in college, she was trying to decide whether to go to New York to medical school or become a professional dancer. Her mother told her, "You can always dance if you're a doctor, but you can't doctor if you're a dancer."
Jemison graduated from Chicago's Morgan Park High School in 1973[8] and entered Stanford University at the age of 16. Jemison graduated from Stanford in 1977, receiving a B.S. in chemical engineering and fulfilling the requirements for a B.A. in African and Afro-American Studies.  
Jemison said that majoring in engineering as a black woman was difficult because race was always an issue in the United States.   "Some professors would just pretend I wasn't there. I would ask a question and a professor would act as if it was just so dumb, the dumbest question he had ever heard. Then, when a white guy would ask the same question, the professor would say, 'That's a very astute observation.'”
Jemison obtained her Doctor of Medicine degree in 1981 from Cornell Medical College (now Weill Cornell Medical College) at Cornell University. She interned at Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center and later worked as a general practitioner.
During medical school Jemison traveled to Cuba, Kenya and Thailand, to provide primary medical care to people living there. During her years at Cornell Medical College, Jemison took lessons in modern dance at the Alvin Ailey school. Jemison later built a dance studio in her home and has choreographed and produced several shows of modern jazz and African dance.
Mae Jemison 2009
In the spring of 1996, Jemison filed a complaint against a Texas police officer, accusing him of police brutality during a traffic stop that ended in her arrest.   She was pulled over by Nassau Bay, Texas officer for allegedly making an illegal U-turn and arrested after Hughes learned of a warrant on Jemison for a speeding charge. In her complaint, Jemison said the officer physically and emotionally mistreated her. Jemison's attorney said she was forced to the ground and handcuffed. Jemison said in a televised interview that the incident has altered her feelings about police there. "I always felt safe and comfortable [around the police]. I don't feel that way anymore," she said.


Chloe Ardelia Wofford
"Toni Morrison"
Novelist, Editor, Professor
1st Black American Winner ofNobel Prize for Literature

100 Days in Rwanda: Over 500,000 Killed in Mass Genocidal Slaughter

North Korea
Bill Clinton, US President and
Kim Jong-Il, Leader of North Korea
North Korea's First Agreement with the Outside World
Agreed Framework
In 1994, the U.S. had been on the brink of war with North Korea over its threat to go nuclear. At the time, the U.S. was in the planning stage of sending a substantial reinforcement troops to South Korea to bolster its strategic efforts. And based upon the accounts of former U.S. president, Jimmy Carter, who had traveled to North Korea, the North Koreans were also in preparation for war. It was President Carter’s call from North Korea that prompted sitting President Bill Clinton to construct the first agreement made by North Korea with the outside world.

North Korea vs United States
Former President Jimmy Carter and Former President  Kim Il Sung (died July 1994)

In his call from North Korea to President Clinton, former president Jimmy Carter, said that he had talked with Kim Il Sung and that Kim Il Sung had told him that he was prepared to stop the nuclear program at Yongbyon if the United States was prepared to offer him an alternative, light-water nuclear reactor. And after a lot of negotiations, the Clinton administration crafted the deal known as the Agreed Framework, in which the North promised to freeze and eventually dismantle its graphite-moderated reactors and related facilities in exchange for two light-water reactors, 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil every year, supplied by the U.S., to make up for the theoretical loss of the reactor while the new one were built, and eventual normalization of political and economic relations with the United Sates. 

South Korea, Japan, and Europeans
There was also an international component, the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was formed with South Korea, Japan and a European agency joining with the United States to implement the agreement.

No Constitutional Advise and Consent
Clinton structured the agreement so that it was not considered a formal treaty that would have required ratification by the Senate under Constitutional “advise and consent”, but formed it as a presidential “executive agreement”.

Some congressmen and senators demanded that the “agreed framework” be treated as a formal treaty; this move was resisted by the Clinton Administration but, because of the budgetary and appropriation clauses of the agreement, the U.S. Congress was inevitably drawn into the process of implementation and verification of the agreement.

The Agreed Framework ended an 18-month crisis during which North Korea announced its intention to withdraw from the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), under which North Korea committed not to develop nuclear weapons. It succeeded in temporarily freezing North Korea’s plutonium production capabilities and placing it under IAEA safeguards. Experts estimate that without the Agreed Framework, North Korea could have had hundreds of nuclear weapons at that point.

North Korea vs United States

George W. Bush Tanks the Agreed Framework
It was always suspected, but not confirmed that North Korea never abided by the agreement, but continued to work covertly on it nuclear weapons program, violating the Agreed Framework, the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, as well as their agreements with South Korea.

After George W. Bush, who opposed the Agreed Framework, was elected to the presidency, all work and effort in fulfilling the agreement ceased, justified by intelligence reports that he received stating that the North Koreans were in violation of the agreement.


Lillian E. Fishburn
1st Black Woman in U.S. Navy History to Hold Rank of Rear Admiral

Washington, DC
William "Bill" Clinton
42nd President of the United States
1993 - 2001
Impeachment of United States President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton, 42nd President of the United Sates was charged with lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice, and impeached on December 19, 1998 by the House of Representatives.  He is only the second president in American history to have been impeached. 

However, despite Republican control of the Senate, they were unable to muster the required 2/3 supermajority to actually convict him.

President Clinton Sued
For Sexual Harassment
Paula Jones Initiates Sexual Harassment
Lawsuit Against President Clinton

On May 6, 1994, two days before the three-year statue of limitations, Paula Jones a former Arkansas state employee, sued President Clinton for sexual harassment, related to an incident that had reportedly occurred in 1991, while Clinton servered as Governor of Arkansas.

Jones sought $750,000 in damages for Clinton propositioning her and exposing himself to her inside of a hotel room, where she had been escorted by staff.

1995 President Clinton
Begins Affair with  21
Years Old White House Intern
It was found that for 1-1/2 years, President Clinton had nearly 12 sexual encounters in the White House with Monica Lewinsky, an unpaid intern.

1996 Monica Lewinsky Shares Details of Her Affair with the President of the United States
21-Year-Old Monica Lewinsky
Government ID Photo

After a few months of working at her new job at the Pentagon, Monica Lewinsky confided in a co-worker, Linda Tripp, that she had had an affair with the president.

1997.January.13 President Clinton's Defense Against Sexual Harassment Lawsuit
President Clinton’s attorneys argued a defense against the sexual harassment lawsuit that pushed the case to the Supreme Court  on January 13, 1997.  And on May 27, 1997, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled against Clinton, and allowed the lawsuit to proceedd.

Secret Recordings Made of
Monica Lewinsky Reports of an Affair and the Existence of Semen-stained Dress
Over 6 months after Monica Lewinsky revealed her affair to Linda Tripp, she and Linda Tripp continued to engaged in conversation about the affair.  It was reported that Tripp began to “secretly” record these conversations, held much later, where Monica Lewinsky revealed additional details.  In November 1997, Monica Lewinsky told Linda Tripp that she a a blue Gap dress that still bore the semen stain resulting from administering oral sex to President Clinton in February 1997.

1998.January 17
President Clinton Denies Sex
in Deposition for Jones Case
Paula Jones’ lawyers decided to show the court a pattern of behavior by Clinton that involved his allegedly repeatedly becoming sexually involved with state or government employees.  Jones’ lawyers therefore subpoenaed Monica Lewinsky.

On January 17, President Bill Clinton offered testimony in a deposition for the Jones lawsuit, where he denied having “sexual relations” with Monica Lewinsky.

Sexual Harassment
Lawsuit Dismissed
On April 2, 1998, before the case could reach trial, Judge Susan Webber Wright granted President Clinton’s motion for dismissal, ruling that Jones could not show that she had suffered any damages.  Jones appealed this decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eight Circuit.

1998.July  Semen-stained
Blue Dress Surfaces
Linda Tripp channeled the details that she had obtained from Monica Lewinsky to Kenneth Starr’s investigative team.  And, in late July, 1998, after signing an immunity agreement, Monica Lewinsky turned the blue dress, which she claimed contained Bill Clinton’s semen, over to Kenneth Starr’s investigators. On August 17, the FBI reported its conclusion that Clinton was the source of the semen on the dress.

Politicians and commentators alike agreed that the blue dress proved Clinton lied when he denied a sexual relationship with Lewinsky.

The Starr Report: an
Impeachment Report by Kenneth Starr
Kenneth Winston "Ken" Starr

President and Chancellor
of Baylor University
2010 - Present

39th Solicitor General of the U.S.
1989 - 1993

Kenneth Starr had been rising in Republican ranks for two decades, and served as a federal Court of Appeals judge and as solicitor for George H.W. Bush.  He was appointed to investigate the suicide death of deputy White House counsel Vince Foster and the Whitewater real estate investments of Bill Clinton, which had occurred 20 years prior.  However, the scope of his inquiry expanded to include a range of accusations of fraud, obstruction of justice and abuse of power allegedly involving President Clinton and the first lady, as well as some of their closest friends and advisers.  It also expanded to include Bill Clinton’s affair with Monica Lewinsky.

After four years of exploring a wide-range of accusations, Kenneth Starr released his impeachment report, the  “Starr Report”.   In it, he made a wide-range of claims against the Clintons.  He also included a  “pornographic” account of the Clinton-Lewinsky affair.  Quoting Lewinsky's extended descriptions of each of her multiple sexual encounters with Clinton, the report laid out a case that the president had committed perjury in denying the affair. It did so in a manner calculated to maximize his embarrassment and encourage a Nixon-like resignation to avoid impeachment. 

Because Starr primarily acted as a political operative, seeking the impeachment of Clinton, and was found to present less than credible details,  he was eventually charged for violating legal ethics for presenting (and leaking) information irrelevant to an investigation as evidence of legal wrongdoing.

Kenneth Starr 2016 Update: In May 2016, Baylor University’s Board of Regents voted to fire Ken Starr as university president and chancellor following investigation into the university’s sexual assaults scandals.

Clinton Settles with
Paula Jones for $850,000
On November 13, 1998, President Clinton settled with Jones for the entire amount of her claim, but without an apology, in exchange for her agreement to drop the appeal.  His attorney stated that Clinton only settled so he could end the lawsuit and move on with his life, and that her claims were actually baseless.

1999.March Final Ruling on
Settlement with Paula Jones
In March 1999, Judge Wright ruled that Jones would only get $200,000 from the settlement and that the rest would be used to pay legal expenses.

The following month, Judge Wright found Clinton in civil contempt of court for misleading testimoney in the Jones case.  She ordered him to pay 12 hundred dollars to the court and 90 thousand dollars to Jones’ lawyers for their expenses.

President Clinton Stripped
of License to Practice Law
After finding Clinton in contempt of court, she also referred his conduct to the Arkansas Bar for disciplinary action, and on January 19, 2001, the day before he left the office of the president, he was stripped of his license to practice law in Arkansas for a period of five years.  His fine was paid from a fund raised for his legal expenses.

February 10, 1999
Thailand's Worst Drought in Decades Forces Declaration of National Water Crisis
Frequent Natural Disasters
Natural disasters frequently occur in Thailand, including floods, droughts, tropical storms and forest fires. Earthquakes and landslides occur occasionally.

The rural area is the most vulnerable to disasters because of infrastructure underdevelopment. Moreover, the rural people that are mostly poor agriculturists are unable to invest in resources for reducing their vulnerability to disasters. 

By January 29, 1999, it was reported that 6 million people in 44 provinces had been affected by Thailand's worst drought in decades. The areas concerned were 11 provinces in the North, 17 provinces in the North-East, 9 provinces in the Central Plains, 6 provinces in the East, and 1 province in the South.

A heavy downpour of rain, lasting several days, averted severe impact of the drought in the East.
Reduction in Use of Water Advised, Especially in Farming
The people were urged to make careful use of the limited water supply.  In particular, farmers were discouraged from planting a second rice crop, in favor of planting  short-lived crops that consume less water, or instructed turn to poultry farming.

The drought has affected the infrastructure of outlying areas in Bangkok, where some roads alongside canals collapsed as their banks caved in due to low water levels.

Drought Coincides with Economic Recession
Unfortunately, the drought coincided with a difficult time of economic recession in Thailand, when it was hoped that agriculture production would help them move  towards economic recovery.

Thailand Droughts Have Become Much Worse
Water shortages in the lowlands of Thailand are one of the most important social and environmental problems experienced each year.  The drought-stricken people suffer water shortage, especially water for drinking, cropping and livestock farming. 

exacerbate (ig ZASS er bate)
to make a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling worse

Droughts annually occur in the dry season of October to April, and they become much worse that ever before. The problems are exacerbated by water demands for agricultural and industrial purposes due to increase in population and economic development.

Deforestation Root
Cause of Drought
The root cause of droughts (an flash floods during the rainy season) in Thailand is deforestation associated with soil characteristics and dry climate. In 1998 the problems are reinforced by the El Nino phenomenon. Deforestation reduces cloud formations, resulting in decreased rainfall ; it also reduces the water retention capacities of watersheds. 

New Sources of Water Sought
Government agencies ae seeking new sources of water.

artesian (are TEEE shun)
a well dug at a particular angle to allow for natural pressure to produce a constant supply of water with little or no pumping)

The Ministry of Industry through the Department of Mineral Resources has started to dig artesian wells in many areas of the country to help drought-hit people.

March 5, 1999
Hit by Drought Thousands of Farmers Arrive in Thailand's Capital
When Thailand experienced the worst drought in decades, it was at the height of economic turmoil that first began to surface in 1997. And tens of thousands of farmers affected by the drought, with severe crop loss, arrived in the capital city of Bangkok demanding compensation and a larger share of the available water.

Their leadership said, "The government is not showing any sincerity to solve farmers' problems.  It always takes the side of the rich people in the cities who do not know about our situation.  At the momemt, we are being reasonable.  But if delays continue, we will take to the streets and maybe even chase out the government".

Government officials disputed farmers' claims, saying, "We cannot control the amount of rain that falls, so we have to control the amount of water we release from the reservoirs in the dry season.  We have told the farmers to cut their cultivating area in half to save water, but because of the high price of rice, they do not listen.  Now everyone is suffering".


Maurice Ashley
World's 1st Black Chess Grandmaster
Maurice Ashley was born in St. Andrew, Jamaica.  He attended Wolmer's Boys School in Jamaica, then moved to the United States when he was 12.  He graduated from City College of New York (CCNY), which he represented in intercollegiate team competition   He is an author, app designer, puzzle inventor, and motivational speaker.

In 1999, at the age of 33, he was awarded the lifetime title of Grandmaster by the world chess organization FIDE.   Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain.

Boris Yeltsin
(1931 - 2007)
President of Russia
1991 - 1999
1st President of Russia Resigns
With an approval rating at an estimated 2%, Boris Yeltsin, after 9 years in office, resigned as President of Russia, by way of a taped message aired on Russian television.

Vladimir Putin, Prime Minister of Russia was then named acting president.